Sleep is often considered a luxury in our fast-paced world, but recent research suggests that consistent sleep loss, i.e missing out on those precious hours of rest might have more serious implications than just feeling groggy the next day.
A study led by UCL (University College London) researchers has found a potential link between consistent short sleep durations (consistent sleep loss) and the onset of depressive symptoms.
Historically, disrupted sleep patterns, especially short sleep durations, have been associated with mental health issues. The prevailing notion was that poor sleep was a consequence of mental ill health. However, the new study suggests that the relationship between sleep and mental health is more nuanced than previously believed.
Odessa S. Hamilton, the lead author from UCL Institute of Epidemiology & Health Care, commented on this intricate relationship, stating, “We have this chicken or egg scenario between suboptimal sleep duration and depression, they frequently cooccur, but which comes first is largely unresolved. Using genetic susceptibility to disease we determined that sleep likely precedes depressive symptoms, rather than the inverse.”
Delving into the Study
The research, published in the journal Translational Psychiatry, analyzed health and genetic data from 7,146 individuals, all of whom were participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). The average age of these participants was 65.
The study’s findings were intriguing. Those with a stronger genetic predisposition to short sleep (defined as less than five hours on a given night) were more likely to develop depressive symptoms over a span of 4-12 years. However, a genetic predisposition to depression did not correlate with an increased likelihood of experiencing short sleep.
Dr. Olesya Ajnakina, the senior author from UCL Institute of Epidemiology & Health Care, emphasized the importance of understanding the genetic factors at play. She mentioned, “Short and long sleep durations, along with depression, are major contributors to public health burden that are highly heritable.”
The Bigger Picture
Beyond the genetic findings, the research team also explored non-genetic associations between depressive symptoms and sleep duration. They discovered that individuals sleeping five hours or less were 2.5 times more likely to develop depressive symptoms. Conversely, those with depressive symptoms had a 33% higher chance of experiencing short sleep.
Interestingly, the study also highlighted a connection between extended sleep durations (more than nine hours) and the onset of depressive symptoms. However, depressive symptoms did not predict longer sleep durations in the subsequent years, aligning with the genetic findings.
Professor Andrew Steptoe, from UCL Institute of Epidemiology & Health Care, underscored the significance of these findings, especially given the global trend of aging populations. He remarked on the necessity to delve deeper into the connection between sleep, genetics, and depressive symptoms.
The study offers a fresh perspective on the age-old debate surrounding sleep and depression. While more research is undoubtedly required, the findings underscore the importance of adequate sleep for mental well-being.
Source: 1. Odessa S. Hamilton, Andrew Steptoe, Olesya Ajnakina. Polygenic predisposition, sleep duration, and depression: evidence from a prospective population-based cohort. Translational Psychiatry, 2023; 13 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41398-023-02622-z
2. University College London. “Consistent lack of sleep is related to future depressive symptoms.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 October 2023. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2023/10/231020105622.htm>.