Ginseng, Panax, Wild ginseng, Panax Ginseng

Ginseng is a medicinal root used in Chinese medicine to help reduce stress and fatigue, improving quality of life and providing longevity. It has stimulating and revitalizing properties that can help with lack of concentration, depression, arteriosclerosis, in addition to regulating blood pressure.

  • Origin: Plant Based, Animal Product, Synthetic
  • Source: Itself
  • Type: Herbs, Roots & Barks
  • Age Range: Adults, Seniors
  • Toxicity: May be toxic in high doses
  • Outcomes: Cognitive Function and Brain Health, Immunity, Men’s Health, Cognitive Enhancer, Immune Booster, Erections

What are Panax Ginseng benefits?

Panax ginseng, also known as ‘True Ginseng’, is a plant that belongs to the Ginseng family. According to studies, Panax ginseng has several effective benefits, such as: elevating mood, enhancing the immune system, improving cognition, fighting fatigue, and increasing energy levels.

Table of relations

Consistent effects
Strength of effects
Scientific articles

Cognitive Function and Brain Health Panax Ginseng and Cognitive Function and Brain Health

Cognitive functions are brain skills divided into: memory, perception, language, executive functions, attention and praxis (ability to perform complex movements). These functions depend on healthy synapses and neurons, which require good overall brain functioning. Supplements can affect cognitive performance directly or indirectly. Direct effects can alter or participate in neurotransmissions and influence the brain's energy metabolism. The indirect effects include hormonal changes that affect the brain, and improvements in cognitive disorders such as anxiety, depression and insomnia.
  • Cognitive Enhancer

    Cognition encompasses many factors, such as thinking, language, perception, and memory. When talking about cognitive improvement, we define age-related decline in cognitive health as something common, however, knowing which habits negatively influence it and how to prevent any loss in these areas is important. In addition to age, factors such as injury, family history, or bad habits can influence the decline to some degree of the sectors involved. Several studies associate nutrition with the improvement of brain and cognitive function; the ingestion of nutraceuticals for this purpose optimizes this process and guarantees results with scientific proof.

Immunity Panax Ginseng and Immunity

The immune system is made up of cells, tissues and organs that act in the organism's defense against the harmful effects of external microorganisms. The supplements indicated for immunity act as strengthening agents of this system, increasing the antibodies production and, consequently, its defense activity.
  • Immune Booster

    The immune system is responsible for defense against infectious agents, and is composed of leukocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. When immunity levels are low, the body is more likely to become infected with viruses, bacteria, and others. People who are easily infected can have low immunity for various reasons, such as family history diseases, poor diet, or absorption difficulties in some body function. Maintaining the intake of substances that strengthen immunity is to prevent diseases and prepare the body for any possible infection. To do this, it is important to turn your attention to what is ingested, exercise habits, and supplementation.

Men's Health Panax Ginseng and Men's Health

A man's health is the result of various habits throughout his life, such as diet, exercise, vaccinations, routine exams, and family history. Male health has biological differences from female health, such as: hormone levels, sexual life and libido, and the cognitive system. Keeping your body healthy requires discipline and attention to monitoring, because these differences require specific care and solutions for a balanced body. Nutraceuticals can help all areas of man's health to function in harmony, from the extraction of vitamins, minerals, and other substances from nature's plants, fruits, and herbs, they boost the good performance of every part of the body.

  • Erections

    When the penis becomes rigid - erect. Erections dysfunctioning may have different causes and some nutraceuticals can help by increasing blod flow, regulate a hormonal deficiency or even a nutrient deficiency.

Table of negative interactions

Abciximab, Acarbose, Acetohexamide, Albiglutide, Alogliptin, Alteplase, Anisindione, Anistreplase, Apixaban, Ardeparin, Argatroban, Aspirin, Betrixaban, Bivalirudin, Bumetanide, Canagliflozin, Cangrelor, Caplacizumab, Chlorpropamide, Clopidogrel, Dabigatran, Dalteparin, Danaparoid, Dapagliflozin, Defibrotide, Dicumarol, Digitoxin, Digoxin, Dipyridamole, Dulaglutide, Dutasteride, Edoxaban, Empagliflozin, Enoxaparin, Eptifibatide, Ertugliflozin, Exenatide, Finasteride, Fondaparinux, Furazolidone, Furosemide, Glimepiride, Glipizide, Glyburide, Heparin, Imatinib, Insulin, Insulin Aspart, Insulin Degludec, Insulin Detemir, Insulin Glargine, Insulin Glulisine, Insulin Inhalation, Insulin Isophane, Insulin Lispro, Insulin Regular, Insulin Zinc, Isocarboxazid, Lepirudin, Linagliptin, Linezolid, Liraglutide, Lixisenatide, Metformin, Miglitol, Nateglinide, Nifedipine, Ozanimod, Phenelzine, Pioglitazone, Pramlintide, Prasugrel, Procarbazine, Repaglinide, Reteplase, Rivaroxaban, Rosiglitazone, Saxagliptin, Semaglutide, Sitagliptin, Streptokinase, Sulfinpyrazone, Tenecteplase, Ticagrelor, Ticlopidine, Tinzaparin, Tirofiban, Tolazamide, Tolbutamide, Torsemide, Tranylcypromine, Troglitazone, Urokinase, Verteporfin, Vorapaxar, Warfarin

Related videos about Panax Ginseng


  1. a b c A double-blind comparison of the effect on quality of life of a combination of vital substances including standardized ginseng G115 and placebo.
  2. a b The relationship between health related quality of life and dietary supplementation in british middle managers: A double blind placebo controlled study.
  3. a b A double blind placebo controlled trial examining the relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and dietary supplements.
  4. ^ Influence of a double blind pharmacological trial on two domains of well-being in subjects with age associated memory impairment.
  5. a b c Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract.
  6. ^ A six-month supplementation of mulberry, korean red ginseng, and banaba decreases biomarkers of systemic low-grade inflammation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.
  7. a b c Effect of ginseng injection on congestive heart failure and thyroid hormones.
  8. ^ WHO Monograph.
  9. a b Chemical constituents and biological activities of the berry of Panax ginseng.
  10. a b c d Yun TK. Brief introduction of Panax ginseng C.A. MeyerJ Korean Med Sci. (2001)
  11. a b c d Jia L, Zhao Y. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine–ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulationsCurr Med Chem. (2009)
  12. a b c d e f g Nag SA, et al. Ginsenosides as Anticancer Agents: In vitro and in vivo Activities, Structure-Activity Relationships, and Molecular Mechanisms of ActionFront Pharmacol. (2012)
  13. a b Kitagawa I, et al. Chemical studies of crude drugs (1). Constituents of Ginseng radix rubraYakugaku Zasshi. (1983)
  14. ^ Wang CZ, et al. Red American ginseng: ginsenoside constituents and antiproliferative activities of heat-processed Panax quinquefolius rootsPlanta Med. (2007)
  15. ^ Banskota AH, et al. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Vietnamese medicinal plantsCurr Top Med Chem. (2003)
  16. ^ Yang JP, Yeo IS. A study on the true nature of “Chinese jinseng”Uisahak. (2003)
  17. ^ Liu CX, Xiao PG. Recent advances on ginseng research in ChinaJ Ethnopharmacol. (1992)
  18. ^ Studies on the Saponins of Ginseng. II. Structures of Ginsenoside-Re, -Rf and -Rg2.
  19. ^ Konoshima T, et al. Cancer chemopreventive activity of majonoside-R2 from Vietnamese ginseng, Panax vietnamensisCancer Lett. (1999)
  20. ^ Wu B, et al. High-Throughput Sequencing and Characterization of the Small RNA Transcriptome Reveal Features of Novel and Conserved MicroRNAs in Panax ginsengPLoS One. (2012)
  21. ^ Ahn JY, et al. The immunomodulator ginsan induces resistance to experimental sepsis by inhibiting Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory signalsEur J Immunol. (2006)
  22. ^ Wan D, et al. Structural characterization and immunological activities of the water-soluble oligosaccharides isolated from the Panax ginseng rootsPlanta. (2012)
  23. ^ Sun L, et al. Structural characterization and immunostimulatory activity of a novel linear α-(1 → 6)-D-glucan isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. MeyerGlycoconj J. (2012)
  24. a b Li C, et al. Purification, characterization and anticancer activity of a polysaccharide from Panax ginsengInt J Biol Macromol. (2012)
  25. a b c Kuo YH, Ikegami F, Lambein F. Neuroactive and other free amino acids in seed and young plants of Panax ginsengPhytochemistry. (2003)
  26. a b c d Sugimoto S, et al. Chemical constituents from seeds of Panax ginseng: structure of new dammarane-type triterpene ketone, panaxadione, and hplc comparisons of seeds and fleshChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2009)
  27. a b Analysis of ginsenoside composition of ginseng berry and seed.
  28. ^ Wang JY, Li XG, Yang XW. Ginsenine, a new alkaloid from the berry of Panax ginseng C. A. MeyerJ Asian Nat Prod Res. (2006)
  29. a b c Park S, Shin WS, Ho J. Fructus panax ginseng extract promotes hair regeneration in C57BL/6 miceJ Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  30. ^ Chen F, Luo J, Kong L. Determination of 10 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng of different harvest times based on HPLC fingerprints and principal component analysisNat Prod Res. (2012)
  31. ^ Li W, et al. Use of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to distinguish Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng)Anal Chem. (2000)
  32. ^ Assinewe VA, et al. Phytochemistry of wild populations of Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng)J Agric Food Chem. (2003)
  33. ^ Ginseng Evaluation Program (American Botanical Council).
  34. ^ Chang YS, et al. Panax ginseng: a role in cancer therapyIntegr Cancer Ther. (2003)
  35. a b Wang A, et al. Determination of major ginsenosides in Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) using high-performance liquid chromatographyPhytochem Anal. (2005)
  36. ^ Bae EA, et al. Metabolism of 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 by human intestinal bacteria and its relation to in vitro biological activitiesBiol Pharm Bull. (2002)
  37. a b Yoon SR, et al. Ginsenoside composition and antiproliferative activities of explosively puffed ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)J Food Sci. (2010)
  38. a b Jung HJ, et al. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions of red ginseng extract by fermentationJ Pharm Pharmacol. (2012)
  39. a b c d e Murata K, et al. Effects of ginseng rhizome and ginsenoside Ro on testosterone 5α-reductase and hair re-growth in testosterone-treated micePhytother Res. (2012)
  40. ^ Arginyl-fructosyl-glucose and Arginyl-fructose, Compounds Related to Browning Reaction in the Model System of Steaming and Heat-drying Processes for the Preparation of Red Ginseng.
  41. a b In vitro and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Arginyl-fructose and Arginyl-fructosyl-glucose.
  42. a b c Ha KS, et al. In vitro and in vivo antihyperglycemic effect of 2 amadori rearrangement compounds, arginyl-fructose and arginyl-fructosyl-glucoseJ Food Sci. (2011)
  43. ^ Joo KM, et al. Simultaneous determination of two Amadori compounds in Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) extracts and rat plasma by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detectionJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. (2008)
  44. ^ Yu CT, et al. Lack of evidence for induction of CYP2B1, CYP3A23, and CYP1A2 gene expression by Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius extracts in adult rats and primary cultures of rat hepatocytesDrug Metab Dispos. (2005)
  45. a b c d e f g Chang TK, Chen J, Benetton SA. In vitro effect of standardized ginseng extracts and individual ginsenosides on the catalytic activity of human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1Drug Metab Dispos. (2002)
  46. a b c d Bae EA, Shin JE, Kim DH. Metabolism of ginsenoside Re by human intestinal microflora and its estrogenic effectBiol Pharm Bull. (2005)
  47. ^ Akao T, et al. Intestinal bacterial hydrolysis is required for the appearance of compound K in rat plasma after oral administration of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginsengJ Pharm Pharmacol. (1998)
  48. ^ Appearance of compound K, a major metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 by intestinal bacteria, in rat plasma after oral administration–measurement of compound K by enzyme immunoassay.
  49. ^ Park EK, et al. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K on NO and prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses of RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharideBiol Pharm Bull. (2005)
  50. ^ Hasegawa H, et al. Main ginseng saponin metabolites formed by intestinal bacteriaPlanta Med. (1996)
  51. a b c Wang J, et al. Anti-fatigue activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. MeyerJ Ethnopharmacol. (2010)
  52. a b c Shin HY, et al. The effect of Panax ginseng on forced immobility time & immune function in miceIndian J Med Res. (2006)
  53. a b c Gaffney BT, Hügel HM, Rich PA. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletesLife Sci. (2001)
  54. ^ Zhang XR, et al. Differences between cold and hot natures of processed Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. based upon mice temperature tropismZhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. (2009)
  55. ^ Jia L, Zhao Y, Liang XJ. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine- ginseng (II): Collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicineCurr Med Chem. (2009)
  56. ^ Cheng KC, Li YX, Cheng JT. The use of herbal medicine in cancer-related anorexia/ cachexia treatment around the worldCurr Pharm Des. (2012)
  57. ^ Fujimoto K, et al. Attenuation of anorexia induced by heat or surgery during sustained administration of ginsenoside Rg1 into rat third ventriclePsychopharmacology (Berl). (1989)
  58. a b Karu N, Reifen R, Kerem Z. Weight gain reduction in mice fed Panax ginseng saponin, a pancreatic lipase inhibitorJ Agric Food Chem. (2007)
  59. ^ Raghavendran HR, et al. Ginsenoside rich fraction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer improve feeding behavior following radiation-induced pica in ratsFitoterapia. (2012)
  60. ^ Mehendale S, et al. American ginseng berry extract and ginsenoside Re attenuate cisplatin-induced kaolin intake in ratsCancer Chemother Pharmacol. (2005)
  61. ^ Kang M, et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 modulates ingestive behavior and thermal response induced by interleukin-1 beta in ratsPhysiol Behav. (1995)
  62. ^ Kim JH, et al. Effect of crude saponin of Korean red ginseng on high-fat diet-induced obesity in the ratJ Pharmacol Sci. (2005)
  63. ^ Attele AS, et al. Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective componentDiabetes. (2002)
  64. ^ Etou H, et al. Ginsenoside-Rb1 as a suppressor in central modulation of feeding in the ratNihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. (1988)
  65. ^ Kim JH, et al. Comparison of the antiobesity effects of the protopanaxadiol- and protopanaxatriol-type saponins of red ginsengPhytother Res. (2009)
  66. a b c d Reay JL, Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adultsHum Psychopharmacol. (2010)
  67. a b c d Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adultsPhysiol Behav. (2002)
  68. a b c d e f Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activityJ Psychopharmacol. (2005)
  69. ^ The Serial Sevens Subtraction Test.
  70. ^ Wang J, et al. Antidepressant-like effects of the active acidic polysaccharide portion of ginseng in miceJ Ethnopharmacol. (2010)
  71. ^ Dang H, et al. Antidepressant effects of ginseng total saponins in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress models of depressionProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2009)
  72. ^ Kim NH, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of altered Korean red ginseng in miceBehav Med. (2011)
  73. a b Kim Y, et al. Anti-stress effects of ginseng via down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) gene expression in immobilization-stressed rats and PC12 cellsNutr Res Pract. (2010)
  74. ^ Nishiyama N, et al. Malonylginsenoside Rb1 potentiates nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth of cultured chick embryonic dorsal root gangliaBiol Pharm Bull. (1994)
  75. a b Liu L, et al. Ginsenoside Rb1 improves spatial learning and memory by regulation of cell genesis in the hippocampal subregions of ratsBrain Res. (2011)
  76. ^ Effect of Black Ginseng on Memory Improvement in the Amnesic Mice Induced by Scopolamine.
  77. ^ Petkov VD, et al. Memory effects of standardized extracts of Panax ginseng (G115), Ginkgo biloba (GK 501) and their combination Gincosan (PHL-00701)Planta Med. (1993)
  78. ^ Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actionsBiochem Pharmacol. (1999)
  79. ^ Tian J, et al. Neuroprotective effect of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on cerebral ischemia in ratsNeurosci Lett. (2005)
  80. a b He B, et al. Neuroprotective effect of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg(3) against transient focal cerebral ischemia in ratsNeurosci Lett. (2012)
  81. a b c Choi YJ, et al. Red ginseng deregulates hypoxia-induced genes by dissociating the HIF-1 dimerJ Nat Med. (2011)
  82. a b Kennedy DO, et al. Electroencephalograph effects of single doses of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng in healthy young volunteersPharmacol Biochem Behav. (2003)
  83. a b c d Lee NH, Son CG. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of ginsengJ Acupunct Meridian Stud. (2011)
  84. ^ Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. Ginseng does not enhance psychological well-being in healthy, young adults: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trialJ Am Diet Assoc. (2001)
  85. ^ Ellis JM, Reddy P. Effects of Panax ginseng on quality of lifeAnn Pharmacother. (2002)
  86. ^ Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patientsDiabetes Care. (1995)
  87. ^ Wiklund IK, et al. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Swedish Alternative Medicine GroupInt J Clin Pharmacol Res. (1999)
  88. ^ Double-Blind Clinical Study of a Multivitamin and Polymineral Complex Associated with Panax ginseng Extract (Gerovital®).
  89. a b Lee B, et al. Wild ginseng attenuates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors during morphine withdrawalJ Microbiol Biotechnol. (2011)
  90. ^ Slawecki CJ, et al. Increased CRF-like and NPY-like immunoreactivity in adult rats exposed to nicotine during adolescence: relation to anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviorNeuropeptides. (2005)
  91. ^ Sievenpiper JL, et al. Korean red ginseng rootlets decrease acute postprandial glycemia: results from sequential preparation- and dose-finding studiesJ Am Coll Nutr. (2006)
  92. a b Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained ‘mentally demanding’ tasksJ Psychopharmacol. (2006)
  93. a b Park MW, Ha J, Chung SH. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and activates AMPKBiol Pharm Bull. (2008)
  94. a b Lee HM, et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes glucose uptake through activated AMPK pathway in insulin-resistant muscle cellsPhytother Res. (2012)
  95. ^ Lee KT, et al. The antidiabetic effect of ginsenoside Rb2 via activation of AMPKArch Pharm Res. (2011)
  96. ^ Quan LH, et al. Enzymatic biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 to 20(S)-Rg3 by recombinant β-glucosidase from Microbacterium esteraromaticumAppl Microbiol Biotechnol. (2012)
  97. ^ Quan HY, et al. Ginsenoside Re lowers blood glucose and lipid levels via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in HepG2 cells and high-fat diet fed miceInt J Mol Med. (2012)
  98. ^ Xie JT, et al. Ginseng berry reduces blood glucose and body weight in db/db micePhytomedicine. (2002)
  99. ^ Dey L, Zhang L, Yuan CS. Anti-diabetic and anti-obese effects of ginseng berry extract: comparison between intraperitoneal and oral administrationsAm J Chin Med. (2002)
  100. ^ Joo Hong Y, et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) ameliorates type 1 diabetes and restores immune cell compartmentsJ Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  101. ^ Lee SH, et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity in high fat fed Sprague-Dawley ratsPhytother Res. (2012)
  102. ^ Lee HJ, et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty ratsMetabolism. (2009)
  103. ^ Lim S, et al. Effect of ginsam, a vinegar extract from Panax ginseng, on body weight and glucose homeostasis in an obese insulin-resistant rat modelMetabolism. (2009)
  104. ^ Li W, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides and compound K on Type 2 diabetes mice induced by high-fat diet combining with streptozotocin via suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesisFitoterapia. (2012)
  105. ^ Yuan HD, et al. Ginsenoside Rg2 induces orphan nuclear receptor SHP gene expression and inactivates GSK3β via AMP-activated protein kinase to inhibit hepatic glucose production in HepG2 cellsChem Biol Interact. (2012)
  106. a b c Kim S, et al. Red ginseng for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of randomized controlled trialsChin J Integr Med. (2011)
  107. a b Vuksan V, et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safetyNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2008)
  108. a b c d Fahim MS, et al. Effect of Panax ginseng on testosterone level and prostate in male ratsArch Androl. (1982)
  109. ^ Youl Kang H, et al. Effects of ginseng ingestion on growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 responses to acute resistance exerciseJ Strength Cond Res. (2002)
  110. a b Salvati G, et al. Effects of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer saponins on male fertilityPanminerva Med. (1996)
  111. a b c Hong B, et al. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary reportJ Urol. (2002)
  112. a b c de Andrade E, et al. Study of the efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunctionAsian J Androl. (2007)
  113. ^ Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review.
  114. a b c Bae JS, et al. Red ginseng and 20(S)-Rg3 control testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia by deregulating androgen receptor signalingJ Nat Med. (2012)
  115. a b c d Lee Y, et al. A ginsenoside-Rh1, a component of ginseng saponin, activates estrogen receptor in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cellsJ Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. (2003)
  116. ^ Jiang C, et al. Potent antiandrogen and androgen receptor activities of an Angelica gigas-containing herbal formulation: identification of decursin as a novel and active compound with implications for prevention and treatment of prostate cancerCancer Res. (2006)
  117. a b c Chan RY, et al. Estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside Rg1 derived from Panax notoginsengJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2002)
  118. a b c Cho J, et al. Ginsenoside-Rb1 from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer activates estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta, independent of ligand bindingJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2004)
  119. ^ Shi C, et al. Estrogenic effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on APP processing in post-menopausal plateletsPlatelets. (2012)
  120. ^ Hwang YP, Jeong HG. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress by increasing heme oxygenase-1 expression through an estrogen receptor-related PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-dependent pathway in human dopaminergic cellsToxicol Appl Pharmacol. (2010)
  121. ^ Shi C, et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes nonamyloidgenic cleavage of APP via estrogen receptor signaling to MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AktBiochim Biophys Acta. (2012)
  122. ^ Hao K, et al. Beneficial estrogen-like effects of ginsenoside Rb1, an active component of Panax ginseng, on neural 5-HT disposition and behavioral tasks in ovariectomized miceEur J Pharmacol. (2011)
  123. ^ Polan ML, et al. Estrogen bioassay of ginseng extract and ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for the enhancement of female sexual functionJ Womens Health (Larchmt). (2004)
  124. a b Liu J, et al. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptomsJ Agric Food Chem. (2001)
  125. ^ Yamamoto M, Kumagai A, Yamamura Y. Stimulatory effect of Panax ginseng principles on DNA and protein synthesis in rat testesArzneimittelforschung. (1977)
  126. ^ Yang WM, et al. Effects of Panax ginseng on glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression and spermatogenesis in ratsPhytother Res. (2011)
  127. ^ Sawiress FA, et al. Effect of ginseng extract supplementation on testicular functions in diabetic ratsEndocr Regul. (2011)
  128. ^ Jang M, et al. Effects of red ginseng extract on the epididymal sperm motility of mice exposed to ethanolInt J Toxicol. (2011)
  129. ^ Kim YH, et al. Effect of korean red ginseng on testicular tissue injury after torsion and detorsionKorean J Urol. (2010)
  130. a b Kim TH, et al. Effects of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) extract on male patients with erectile dysfunctionAsian J Androl. (2009)
  131. a b Jang DJ, et al. Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic reviewBr J Clin Pharmacol. (2008)
  132. ^ Effectiveness of Korean red ginseng in erectile dysfunction: multi-national approach.
  133. ^ Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH. Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunctionInt J Impot Res. (1995)
  134. a b Clinical Efficacy of Korea Red Ginseng on Vasculogenic Impotent Patients.
  135. ^ Hu S, et al. Adjuvant effect of ginseng extracts on the immune responses to immunisation against Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattleVet Immunol Immunopathol. (2003)
  136. ^ Rivera E, Hu S, Concha C. Ginseng and aluminium hydroxide act synergistically as vaccine adjuvantsVaccine. (2003)
  137. a b Rivera E, Daggfeldt A, Hu S. Ginseng extract in aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines improves the antibody response of pigs to porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiaeVet Immunol Immunopathol. (2003)
  138. a b c Scaglione F, et al. Efficacy and safety of the standardised Ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold {corrected}Drugs Exp Clin Res. (1996)
  139. a b Na HS, et al. Ginsan enhances humoral antibody response to orally delivered antigenImmune Netw. (2010)
  140. ^ Sozzani S, et al. Receptor expression and responsiveness of human dendritic cells to a defined set of CC and CXC chemokinesJ Immunol. (1997)
  141. a b c Du XF, et al. Synergistic immunostimulating activity of pidotimod and red ginseng acidic polysaccharide against cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressionArch Pharm Res. (2008)
  142. ^ Hwang I, et al. An acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and induces regulatory T cellsImmunol Lett. (2011)
  143. a b Liou CJ, Huang WC, Tseng J. Short-term oral administration of ginseng extract induces type-1 cytokine productionImmunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. (2006)
  144. a b Park KM, et al. Nitric oxide is involved in the immunomodulating activities of acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginsengPlanta Med. (2001)
  145. a b c Byeon SE, et al. Molecular mechanism of macrophage activation by red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginsengMediators Inflamm. (2012)
  146. ^ Du Xiao F, et al. Synergistic immunostimulatory effect of pidotimod and red ginseng acidic polysaccharide on humoral immunity of immunosuppressed micePharmazie. (2008)
  147. a b Su F, et al. Ginsenosides Rg1 and Re act as adjuvant via TLR4 signaling pathwayVaccine. (2012)
  148. a b Lee IA, et al. Ginsenoside Re ameliorates inflammation by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 on macrophagesJ Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  149. a b Paul S, Shin HS, Kang SC. Inhibition of inflammations and macrophage activation by ginsenoside-Re isolated from Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)Food Chem Toxicol. (2012)
  150. a b c Pannacci M, et al. Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer G115 modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mice throughout the increase of macrophage toll-like receptor 4 expression during physical stressBrain Behav Immun. (2006)
  151. a b Yun TK, Choi SY. Preventive effect of ginseng intake against various human cancers: a case-control study on 1987 pairsCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (1995)
  152. ^ Sin S, Kim SY, Kim SS. Chronic treatment with ginsenoside Rg3 induces Akt-dependent senescence in human glioma cellsInt J Oncol. (2012)
  153. a b Park HM, et al. Reactive oxygen species mediated ginsenoside Rg3- and Rh2-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells through mitochondrial signaling pathwaysFood Chem Toxicol. (2012)
  154. a b c Cho S, et al. Red ginseng root extract mixed with Torilus fructus and Corni fructus improves facial wrinkles and increases type I procollagen synthesis in human skin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Med Food. (2009)
  155. a b Kang TH, et al. Effects of red ginseng extract on UVB irradiation-induced skin aging in hairless miceJ Ethnopharmacol. (2009)
  156. ^ Kim S, et al. Compound K induces expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 gene in transformed human keratinocytes and increases hyaluronan in hairless mouse skinBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2004)
  157. ^ Kwok HH, et al. Ginsenoside Rb(1) induces type I collagen expression through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-deltaBiochem Pharmacol. (2012)
  158. ^ Lee J, et al. Panax ginseng induces human Type I collagen synthesis through activation of Smad signalingJ Ethnopharmacol. (2007)
  159. ^ Kim YG, et al. Effects of Red Ginseng extract on ultraviolet B-irradiated skin change in C57BL micePhytother Res. (2008)
  160. ^ Kim YG, et al. Effects of ginseng saponins isolated from red ginseng on ultraviolet B-induced skin aging in hairless miceEur J Pharmacol. (2009)
  161. a b Lee HJ, et al. Photoprotective effect of red ginseng against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mousePhytother Res. (2009)
  162. ^ Kim H, et al. Stimulatory effect of dietary red ginseng on epidermal hydration and ceramide levels in ultraviolet-irradiated hairless miceJ Med Food. (2009)
  163. a b Matsuda H, et al. Promotion of hair growth by ginseng radix on cultured mouse vibrissal hair folliclesPhytother Res. (2003)
  164. ^ Kim SH, et al. Panax ginseng prevents apoptosis in hair follicles and accelerates recovery of hair medullary cells in irradiated miceIn Vivo. (1998)
  165. ^ Hong CE, Lyu SY. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidative Effects of Korean Red Ginseng Extract in Human KeratinocytesImmune Netw. (2011)
  166. ^ Kim HS, et al. Effects of topically applied Korean red ginseng and its genuine constituents on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga miceInt Immunopharmacol. (2011)
  167. a b Efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis.
  168. ^ Im GJ, et al. Protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract on cisplatin ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cellsPhytother Res. (2010)
  169. a b c Choung YH, et al. Korean red ginseng prevents gentamicin-induced hearing loss in ratsLaryngoscope. (2011)
  170. a b Hong BN, et al. Post-exposure treatment with ginsenoside compound K ameliorates auditory functional injury associated with noise-induced hearing loss in miceNeurosci Lett. (2011)
  171. a b Oyagi A, et al. Protective effects of a gastrointestinal agent containing Korean red ginseng on gastric ulcer models in miceBMC Complement Altern Med. (2010)
  172. ^ Yeo M, et al. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, protects ethanol-induced gastric damages in rat through the induction of cytoprotective heat-shock protein 27Dig Dis Sci. (2008)
  173. ^ Jeong CS, Hyun JE, Kim YS. Ginsenoside Rb1: the anti-ulcer constituent from the head of Panax ginsengArch Pharm Res. (2003)
  174. ^ Jeong CS. Effect of butanol fraction of Panax ginseng head on gastric lesion and ulcerArch Pharm Res. (2002)
  175. ^ Sun XB, Matsumoto T, Yamada H. Anti-ulcer activity and mode of action of the polysaccharide fraction from the leaves of Panax ginsengPlanta Med. (1992)
  176. ^ Sun XB, Matsumoto T, Yamada H. Purification of an anti-ulcer polysaccharide from the leaves of Panax ginsengPlanta Med. (1992)
  177. ^ Chen CY, et al. Preventive effects of Chinese herb chai-hu-gui-zhi-tang extract on water immersion restraint stress-induced acute gastric ulceration in ratsJ Vet Med Sci. (2010)
  178. a b c d e f Inoue E, et al. Pharmacological properties of N-095, a drug containing red ginseng, polygala root, saffron, antelope horn and aloe woodAm J Chin Med. (2005)
  179. a b c d e Wang W, et al. The effect of Acorus gramineus on the bioavailabilities and brain concentrations of ginsenosides Rg1, Re and Rb1 after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San preparations in ratsJ Ethnopharmacol. (2010)
  180. a b c Dang H, et al. Preventive action of Kai Xin San aqueous extract on depressive-like symptoms and cognition deficit induced by chronic mild stressExp Biol Med (Maywood). (2009)
  181. ^ Zhou XJ, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of the extracted of Kai Xin San, a traditional Chinese herbal prescription, is explained by modulation of the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter system in mouseJ Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  182. a b c Cao Y, et al. Effects of a Chinese traditional formula Kai Xin San (KXS) on chronic fatigue syndrome mice induced by forced wheel runningJ Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  183. a b Mu LH, et al. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity assessment of the herbal formula Kai-Xin-SanJ Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  184. ^ Pharmacological Studies of a Crude Drug Containing Red Ginseng, Polygala Root, Saffron, Antelope Horn and Aloe Wood.
  185. ^ Pharmacological Studies of a Crude Drug Containing Red Ginseng, Polygala Root, Saffron, Antelope Horn and Aloe Wood: Effects on the Cerebral Blood Circulation System.
  186. ^ Kim HG, et al. Antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in healthy subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trialFood Chem Toxicol. (2011)
  187. ^ Lee NH, et al. Safety and Tolerability of Panax ginseng Root Extract: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial in Healthy Korean VolunteersJ Altern Complement Med. (2012)
  188. ^ Park BJ, et al. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cardiovascular Risks in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-blind Randomized Controlled StudyKorean J Fam Med. (2012)
  189. ^ Kim JY, et al. Beneficial effects of Korean red ginseng on lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and LDL oxidation in healthy participants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialNutr J. (2012)
  190. ^ An in‐vitro study of ginsenoside Rb1‐induced teratogenicity using a whole rat embryo culture model.
  191. ^ Chan LY, Chiu PY, Lau TK. Embryotoxicity study of ginsenoside Rc and Re in in vitro rat whole embryo cultureReprod Toxicol. (2004)
  192. ^ Liu P, et al. Effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on postimplantation rat and mouse embryos cultured in vitroToxicol In Vitro. (2006)
  193. a b c Shin S, et al. Korean red ginseng extract does not cause embryo-fetal death or abnormalities in miceBirth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. (2010)
  194. ^ Holst L, Nordeng H, Haavik S. Use of herbal drugs during early pregnancy in relation to maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomePharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. (2008)
  195. ^ Seely D, et al. Safety and efficacy of panax ginseng during pregnancy and lactationCan J Clin Pharmacol. (2008)
  196. ^ Kakisaka Y, et al. Panax ginseng: a newly identified cause of gynecomastiaTohoku J Exp Med. (2012)
  197. Ping FW, Keong CC, Bandyopadhyay A. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environmentIndian J Med Res. (2011)
  198. Jovanovski E, et al. Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) and its isolated ginsenosides and polysaccharides on arterial stiffness in healthy individualsAm J Hypertens. (2010)
  199. Yun TK, et al. Non-organ-specific preventive effect of long-term administration of Korean red ginseng extract on incidence of human cancersJ Med Food. (2010)
  200. De Souza LR, et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root fractions: differential effects on postprandial glycemia in healthy individualsJ Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  201. Kitaoka K, et al. Fermented ginseng improves the first-night effect in humansSleep. (2009)
  202. Reeds DN, et al. Ginseng and ginsenoside Re do not improve β-cell function or insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetesDiabetes Care. (2011)
  203. Oh KJ, et al. Effects of Korean red ginseng on sexual arousal in menopausal women: placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover clinical studyJ Sex Med. (2010)
  204. Kim SY, et al. Effects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trialMenopause. (2012)
  205. Rhee MY, et al. Effect of Korean red ginseng on arterial stiffness in subjects with hypertensionJ Altern Complement Med. (2011)
  206. Jung HL, et al. Effects of Panax ginseng supplementation on muscle damage and inflammation after uphill treadmill running in humansAm J Chin Med. (2011)
  207. Heo JH, et al. An open-label trial of Korean red ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s diseaseEur J Neurol. (2008)
  208. Ahn CM, et al. Red ginseng extract improves coronary flow reserve and increases absolute numbers of various circulating angiogenic cells in patients with first ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarctionPhytother Res. (2011)
  209. Reay JL, et al. Panax ginseng has no effect on indices of glucose regulation following acute or chronic ingestion in healthy volunteersBr J Nutr. (2009)