vitex agnus-castus, Vitex, Chaste Tree, Chasteberry
Vitex agnus-castus is primarily used today to alleviate the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. It has outperformed placebo in numerous trials, and has been shown to be effective at reducing hot flashes, bloating, irritability, sleep disturbances, depressions, various mood disorders and even cramping associated with premenstrual syndrome.
- Origin Plant Based
- Source Itself
- Type Phytochemicals
Energy and mood are associated with several external and internal factors. Hormone release, brain chemical balance, nutrient metabolism, and several other elements alter the way the body and mind respond to daily activities. The compounds that benefit energy and mood are the ones that help in the balance of all these factors.
Anxiety is the body's natural response to stress. It's a feeling of fear or apprehension about what's to come. It can be triggered by a specific situation and not last long - which is very common and ok - or it can be a generalized disorder (which is considered a illness) that can bring harm to everyday life and also cause other conditions like depression.
Depression is a chronic and recurrent psychiatric condition that produces mood changes characterized by deep sadness, mood swings, loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a condition that affects a woman’s emotions, physical health, and behavior during certain days of the menstrual cycle, generally just before her menses. PMS is a very common condition. Its symptoms affect more than 90 percent of menstruating women. It must impair some aspect of your life for your doctor to diagnose you. PMS symptoms start five to 11 days before menstruation and typically go away once menstruation begins. The cause of PMS is unknown. However, many researchers believe that it’s related to a change in both sex hormone and serotonin levels at the beginning of the menstrual cycle. Levels of estrogen and progesterone increase during certain times of the month. An increase in these hormones can cause mood swings, anxiety, and irritability. Ovarian steroids also modulate activity in parts of your brain associated with premenstrual symptoms.
- Age Range Teenagers (13-19), Adults (20-59)
- Toxicity May be toxic in high doses
- Side effects
Why be Careful
- ^ a b c Treatment of moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus (BNO 1095) in Chinese women.
- ^ a b Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: a randomized trial.
- ^ a b A pilot study to examine a combination botanical for the treatment of menopausal symptoms.
- ^ a b c Webster DE, et al. Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: implication for its use in PMS. J Ethnopharmacol. (2006)
- ^ a b c Extraction of phenolic compounds from Vitex agnus-castus L.
- ^ Honda G, et al. Traditional medicine in Turkey. VI. Folk medicine in west Anatolia: Afyon, Kütahya, Denizli, Muğla, Aydin provinces. J Ethnopharmacol. (1996)
- ^ Tesch BJ. Herbs commonly used by women: an evidence-based review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. (2003)
- ^ a b Tamagno G, et al. Vitex agnus castus might enrich the pharmacological armamentarium for medical treatment of prolactinoma. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. (2007)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Meier B, et al. Pharmacological activities of Vitex agnus-castus extracts in vitro. Phytomedicine. (2000)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wuttke W, et al. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus)–pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine. (2003)
- ^ Hoberg E, Meier B, Sticher O. Quantitative high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of diterpenoids in agni-casti fructus. Planta Med. (2000)
- ^ a b c d e f Jarry H, et al. Evidence for estrogen receptor beta-selective activity of Vitex agnus-castus and isolated flavones. Planta Med. (2003)
- ^ Vitexlactam A, a novel labdane diterpene lactam from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Ono M, et al. A new diterpenoid glucoside and two new diterpenoids from the fruit of Vitex agnus-castus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2011)
- ^ Ono M, et al. Five new diterpenoids, viteagnusins A–E, from the fruit of Vitex agnus-castus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2008)
- ^ Ono M, et al. Three new diterpenoids from the fruit of Vitex agnus-castus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2009)
- ^ a b c d e f Chen SN, et al. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits. Fitoterapia. (2011)
- ^ Sena Filho JG, et al. Ecdysteroids from Vitex species: distribution and compilation of their 13C-NMR spectral data. Chem Biodivers. (2008)
- ^ Ahmad B, et al. Anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibitory activities of a crude extract and a pterocarpan isolated from the aerial parts of Vitex agnus-castus. Biotechnol J. (2010)
- ^ Mönchspfeffer bei prämenstruellem Syndrom.
- ^ a b c d Berger D, et al. Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Arch Gynecol Obstet. (2000)
- ^ a b c Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study.
- ^ Ho SH, et al. The effects of commercial preparations of herbal supplements commonly used by women on the biotransformation of fluorogenic substrates by human cytochromes P450. Phytother Res. (2011)
- ^ a b Dericks-Tan JS, Schwinn P, Hildt C. Dose-dependent stimulation of melatonin secretion after administration of Agnus castus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. (2003)
- ^ a b c d e f g Webster DE, et al. Opioidergic mechanisms underlying the actions of Vitex agnus-castus L. Biochem Pharmacol. (2011)
- ^ Tuchman E. Exploring the prevalence of menopause symptoms in midlife women in methadone maintenance treatment. Soc Work Health Care. (2007)
- ^ Simpkins JW, Katovich MJ, Song IC. Similarities between morphine withdrawal in the rat and the menopausal hot flush. Life Sci. (1983)
- ^ Casper RF, Yen SS. Neuroendocrinology of menopausal flushes: an hypothesis of flush mechanism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1985)
- ^ Giannini AJ, Price WA, Loiselle RH. beta-Endorphin withdrawal: a possible cause of premenstrual tension syndrome. Int J Psychophysiol. (1984)
- ^ Giannini AJ, et al. Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome as a function of beta-endorphin: two subtypes. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (1994)
- ^ Barden N, et al. Changes in the beta-endorphin content of discrete hypothalamic nuclei during the estrous cycle of the rat. Brain Res. (1981)
- ^ Genazzani AR, et al. Effect of steroid hormones and antihormones on hypothalamic beta-endorphin concentrations in intact and castrated female rats. J Endocrinol Invest. (1990)
- ^ Possible Modulation of the Anexiogenic Effects of Vitex Agnus-castus by the Serotonergic System.
- ^ Sliutz G, et al. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells. Horm Metab Res. (1993)
- ^ Jarry H, et al. In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp Clin Endocrinol. (1994)
- ^ a b c YE Q, et al. Casticin, a flavonoid isolated from Vitex rotundifolia, inhibits prolactin release in vivo and in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin. (2010)
- ^ a b c d e f g h Ibrahim NA, et al. Gynecological efficacy and chemical investigation of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruits growing in Egypt. Nat Prod Res. (2008)
- ^ a b Merz PG, et al. The effects of a special Agnus castus extract (BP1095E1) on prolactin secretion in healthy male subjects. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. (1996)
- ^ a b c d e Carmichael AR. Can Vitex Agnus Castus be Used for the Treatment of Mastalgia? What is the Current Evidence. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2008)
- ^ a b c van Die MD, et al. Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste-Tree/Berry) in the treatment of menopause-related complaints. J Altern Complement Med. (2009)
- ^ Mühlenstedt D, et al. Short luteal phase and prolactin. Int J Fertil. (1978)
- ^ Jeske W, et al. Serum prolactin in women with premenstrual syndrome. Mater Med Pol. (1980)
- ^ Zichella L, et al. Effects of different dopamine agonists and antagonists on post-menopausal hot flushes. Maturitas. (1986)
- ^ Oksa S, Luukkaala T, Mäenpää J. Toremifene for premenstrual mastalgia: a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study. BJOG. (2006)
- ^ Caleffi M, et al. Effect of tamoxifen on oestrogen binding, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and blood clotting parameters in premenopausal women with breast pain. J Endocrinol. (1988)
- ^ a b c Schellenberg R, et al. Dose-dependent efficacy of the Vitex agnus castus extract Ze 440 in patients suffering from premenstrual syndrome. Phytomedicine. (2012)
- ^ a b c d Zamani M, Neghab N, Torabian S. Therapeutic effect of Vitex agnus castus in patients with premenstrual syndrome. Acta Med Iran. (2012)
- ^ Atmaca M, Kumru S, Tezcan E. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. (2003)
- ^ Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine.
- ^ a b Ma L, et al. Evaluating therapeutic effect in symptoms of moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus (BNO 1095) in Chinese women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. (2010)
- ^ He Z, et al. Treatment for premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: A prospective, randomized, multi-center placebo controlled study in China. Maturitas. (2009)
- ^ Ambrosini A, et al. Use of Vitex agnus-castus in migrainous women with premenstrual syndrome: an open-label clinical observation. Acta Neurol Belg. (2012)
- ^ van Die MD, et al. Hypericum perforatum with Vitex agnus-castus in menopausal symptoms: a randomized, controlled trial. Menopause. (2009)
- ^ Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: a research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery 8 (2003) 148-154.
- ^ van Die MD, et al. Predictors of placebo response in a randomized, controlled trial of phytotherapy in menopause. Menopause. (2009)
- ^ a b c d e Assessment report on Vitex agnus-castus L., fructus.
- ^ Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ. (2001)
- ^ Loch EG, Selle H, Boblitz N. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome with a phytopharmaceutical formulation containing Vitex agnus castus. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. (2000)
- ^ a b Dugoua JJ, et al. Safety and efficacy of chastetree (Vitex agnus-castus) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol. (2008)
- ^ a b c Mesaik MA; Azizuddin, et al. Isolation and immunomodulatory properties of a flavonoid, casticin from Vitex agnus-castus. Phytother Res. (2009)
- ^ Shen JK, et al. Casticin induces leukemic cell death through apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Ann Hematol. (2009)
- ^ a b Choudhary MI; Azizuddin, et al. Antiinflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory compounds from Vitex agnus-castus. Phytother Res. (2009)
- ^ a b c d Liu J, et al. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry). Phytomedicine. (2004)
- ^ a b c Liu J, et al. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J Agric Food Chem. (2001)
- ^ Nasri S, et al. The effects of Vitex agnus castus extract and its interaction with dopaminergic system on LH and testosterone in male mice. Pak J Biol Sci. (2007)
- ^ a b The Effects of Vitex agnus castus L. Extract on Gonadotrophines and Testosterone in Male Mice.
- ^ a b c van Die MD, et al. Effects of a combination of Hypericum perforatum and Vitex agnus-castus on PMS-like symptoms in late-perimenopausal women: findings from a subpopulation analysis. J Altern Complement Med. (2009)
- ^ Community herbal monograph on Vitex agnus-castus L., fructus.
- ^ Gallagher J, Lynch FW, Barragry J. A prolactinoma masked by a herbal remedy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. (2008)
- ^ a b Momoeda M1, et al. Efficacy and safety of Vitex agnus-castus extract for treatment of premenstrual syndrome in Japanese patients: a prospective, open-label study. Adv Ther. (2014)
- Lauritzen C, et al. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine. (1997)
- Mirghafourvand M, et al. Effects of Vitex agnus and Flaxseed on cyclic mastalgia: A randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. (2016)
- Verkaik S, et al. The treatment of premenstrual syndrome with preparations of Vitex agnus castus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. (2017)