Ginkgo, tanakan, tebonin, Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is a herb used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine, for carrying a combination of phenolic compounds that are important for cognitive processes, antioxidants, cardioprotective, energy boosters and others. It is one of the most consumed supplements in the world today, precisely because of its many effects. This herb is mainly indicated for the elderly, as they are the ones who benefit most from the supplement, according to studies.

  • Origin: Plant Based
  • Source: Itself
  • Type: Nootropics
  • Age Range: Adults, Seniors
  • Toxicity: May be toxic in high doses
  • Outcomes: Cognitive Function and Brain Health, Cognitive Enhancer

What are Ginkgo Biloba benefits?

Ginkgo biloba, also known as maidenhair, is a tree native to China that has been cultivated for thousands of years for a variety of uses (including in traditional medicine). Because it is the only surviving member of an ancient order of plants, Ginkgo Biloba is considered a living fossil, having been around for more than 200 million years. Although the leaves and seeds are often used in traditional Chinese medicine, modern research focuses its studies mainly on ginkgo extract, which is made from the leaves. Thus, according to studies, ginkgo Biloba supplementation is associated with several benefits, particularly about brain health, either for cognitive enhancement or to alleviate cognitive decline. Other benefits of ginkgo Biloba also evidenced in scientific research are improved circulation and heart health; improved symptoms of asthma and COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; help treat depression; help treat headaches and migraines; help treat sexual dysfunction; aid in vision and eye health; reduce anxiety; reduce PMS symptoms, reduce symptoms of psychiatric disorders and dementia.

Table of relations

Consistent effects
Strength of effects
Scientific articles

Cognitive Function and Brain Health Ginkgo Biloba and Cognitive Function and Brain Health

Cognitive functions are brain skills divided into: memory, perception, language, executive functions, attention and praxis (ability to perform complex movements). These functions depend on healthy synapses and neurons, which require good overall brain functioning. Supplements can affect cognitive performance directly or indirectly. Direct effects can alter or participate in neurotransmissions and influence the brain's energy metabolism. The indirect effects include hormonal changes that affect the brain, and improvements in cognitive disorders such as anxiety, depression and insomnia.
  • Cognitive Enhancer

    Cognition encompasses many factors, such as thinking, language, perception, and memory. When talking about cognitive improvement, we define age-related decline in cognitive health as something common, however, knowing which habits negatively influence it and how to prevent any loss in these areas is important. In addition to age, factors such as injury, family history, or bad habits can influence the decline to some degree of the sectors involved. Several studies associate nutrition with the improvement of brain and cognitive function; the ingestion of nutraceuticals for this purpose optimizes this process and guarantees results with scientific proof.

Table of negative interactions

Warfarin, Insulin, Aspirin

Related videos about Ginkgo Biloba


  1. a b c Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementiaDement Geriatr Cogn Disord. (2000)
  2. a b c Napryeyenko O, Sonnik G, Tartakovsky I. Efficacy and tolerability of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 by type of dementia: analyses of a randomised controlled trialJ Neurol Sci. (2009)
  3. a b Usai S, Grazzi L, Bussone G. Gingkolide B as migraine preventive treatment in young age: results at 1-year follow-upNeurol Sci. (2011)
  4. a b Usai S, et al. An innovative approach for migraine prevention in young age: a preliminary studyNeurol Sci. (2010)
  5. a b Esposito M, Carotenuto M. Ginkgolide B complex efficacy for brief prophylaxis of migraine in school-aged children: an open-label studyNeurol Sci. (2011)
  6. a b Wu Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract improves coronary blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease: role of endothelium-dependent vasodilationPlanta Med. (2007)
  7. a b Zhang WF, et al. Extract of Ginkgo biloba treatment for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Clin Psychiatry. (2011)
  8. a b Lyon MR, et al. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot studyJ Psychiatry Neurosci. (2001)
  9. a b Zhang ZJ, et al. Dietary supplement with a combination of Rhodiola crenulata and Ginkgo biloba enhances the endurance performance in healthy volunteersChin J Integr Med. (2009)
  10. a b Nathan PJ, et al. Effects of a combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humansHum Psychopharmacol. (2004)
  11. a b Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. Differential, dose dependent changes in cognitive performance following acute administration of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination to healthy young volunteersNutr Neurosci. (2001)
  12. a b c Wesnes KA, et al. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteersPsychopharmacology (Berl). (2000)
  13. a b Wesnes KA, et al. The cognitive, subjective, and physical effects of a ginkgo biloba/panax ginseng combination in healthy volunteers with neurasthenic complaintsPsychopharmacol Bull. (1997)
  14. a b c Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks’ treatment in post-menopausal womenNutr Neurosci. (2004)
  15. a b Wu YZ, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract improves coronary artery circulation in patients with coronary artery disease: contribution of plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1Phytother Res. (2008)
  16. a b Wu Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract improves coronary blood flow in healthy elderly adults: role of endothelium-dependent vasodilationPhytomedicine. (2008)
  17. a b c DeFeudis FV. A brief history of EGb 761 and its therapeutic usesPharmacopsychiatry. (2003)
  18. a b Ginkgos and People2014 A Thousand Years of Interaction.
  19. ^ Winslow LC, Kroll DJ. Herbs as medicinesArch Intern Med. (1998)
  20. ^ Curtis-Prior P, Vere D, Fray P. Therapeutic value of Ginkgo biloba in reducing symptoms of decline in mental functionJ Pharm Pharmacol. (1999)
  21. a b Drew S, Davies E. Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trialBMJ. (2001)
  22. a b c Ekman L, et al. Development of an alternative method for determination of terpene lactones in ginkgo dry extractPharmeur Bio Sci Notes. (2009)
  23. a b c d e f g h i [No authors listed. EGb 761: ginkgo biloba extract, GinkorDrugs R D. (2003)
  24. ^ Kaur P, et al. Optimization of extraction technique and validation of developed RP-HPLC-ELSD method for determination of terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba leavesJ Pharm Biomed Anal. (2009)
  25. a b Vitolo O, et al. Protection against beta-amyloid induced abnormal synaptic function and cell death by Ginkgolide JNeurobiol Aging. (2009)
  26. ^ Bolshakov S, et al. A concise synthesis of ginkgolide M, a minor component of a terpene trilactone fraction from ginkgo biloba rootsJ Nat Prod. (2006)
  27. ^ Scholtyssek H, et al. Antioxidative activity of ginkgolides against superoxide in an aprotic environmentChem Biol Interact. (1997)
  28. a b c d e f Liao HJ, et al. Two new ginkgolides from the leaves of Ginkgo bilobaPlanta Med. (2011)
  29. ^ Liu ZH, Zeng S. Cytotoxicity of ginkgolic acid in HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytesToxicol Lett. (2009)
  30. a b c d e f g h i j k Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts.
  31. ^ Extraction and isolation of shikimic acid from Ginkgo biloba leaves utilizing an ionic liquid that dissolves cellulose.
  32. a b Qaâdan F, et al. Polyphenols from Ginkgo bilobaSci Pharm. (2010)
  33. ^ Stafford HA, Kreitlow KS, Lester HH. Comparison of Proanthocyanidins and Related Compounds in Leaves and Leaf-Derived Cell Cultures of Ginkgo bioloba L., Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco, and Ribes sanguineum PurshPlant Physiol. (1986)
  34. a b Sloley BD, et al. Identification of kaempferol as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and potential Neuroprotectant in extracts of Ginkgo biloba leavesJ Pharm Pharmacol. (2000)
  35. ^ Briançon-Scheid F, Lobstein-Guth A, Anton R. HPLC Separation and Quantitative Determination of Biflavones in Leaves from Ginkgo bilobaPlanta Med. (1983)
  36. ^ Hyun SK, et al. Biflavone glucosides from Ginkgo biloba yellow leavesChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2005)
  37. ^ Expression of Chlorophyllase Is Not Induced during Autumnal Yellowing in Ginkgo biloba.
  38. ^ Huang X, Xie W, Gong Z. Characteristics and antifungal activity of a chitin binding protein from Ginkgo bilobaFEBS Lett. (2000)
  39. ^ Hauns B, et al. Phase II study with 5-fluorouracil and ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) in patients with pancreatic cancerArzneimittelforschung. (1999)
  40. a b c d e Meston CM, Rellini AH, Telch MJ. Short- and long-term effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual dysfunction in womenArch Sex Behav. (2008)
  41. a b c d e f g h i j Biber A. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgo biloba extractsPharmacopsychiatry. (2003)
  42. a b c d Kehr J, et al. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb 761®) and its specific acylated flavonol constituents increase dopamine and acetylcholine levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex: possible implications for the cognitive enhancing properties of EGb 761®Int Psychogeriatr. (2012)
  43. ^ Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementiaCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2009)
  44. a b c Diamond BJ, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract: mechanisms and clinical indicationsArch Phys Med Rehabil. (2000)
  45. a b c d Das A, et al. A comparative study in rodents of standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera and Ginkgo biloba: anticholinesterase and cognitive enhancing activitiesPharmacol Biochem Behav. (2002)
  46. a b c d e Woelkart K, et al. Pharmacokinetics of bilobalide, ginkgolide A and B after administration of three different Ginkgo biloba L. preparations in humansPhytother Res. (2010)
  47. ^ The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine ginkgo biloba.
  48. ^ Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems for Improving Oral Absorption of Ginkgo Biloba Extracts.
  49. ^ Oliveira EJ, Watson DG. In vitro glucuronidation of kaempferol and quercetin by human UGT-1A9 microsomesFEBS Lett. (2000)
  50. a b c d Lau AJ, et al. Human pregnane X receptor agonism by Ginkgo biloba extract: assessment of the role of individual ginkgolidesJ Pharmacol Exp Ther. (2010)
  51. a b c Deng Y, et al. Induction of cytochrome P450s by terpene trilactones and flavonoids of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in ratsXenobiotica. (2008)
  52. ^ Blonk M, et al. Effect of ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in healthy volunteersAntimicrob Agents Chemother. (2012)
  53. ^ Wiegman DJ, Brinkman K, Franssen EJ. Interaction of Ginkgo biloba with efavirenzAIDS. (2009)
  54. ^ Naccarato M, Yoong D, Gough K. A Potential Drug-Herbal Interaction between Ginkgo biloba and EfavirenzJ Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). (2012)
  55. ^ Guo CX, et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on pharmacokinetics and efficacy of atorvastatin based on plasma indicesXenobiotica. (2012)
  56. ^ Kim BH, et al. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteersClin Ther. (2010)
  57. ^ Kim TE, et al. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ticlopidine between administration of a combined fixed-dose tablet formulation of ticlopidine 250 mg/ginkgo extract 80 mg, and concomitant administration of ticlopidine 250-mg and ginkgo extract 80-mg tablets: an open-label, two-treatment, single-dose, randomized-sequence crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteersClin Ther. (2009)
  58. ^ Jiang X, Blair EY, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approachJ Clin Pharmacol. (2006)
  59. ^ Jiang X, et al. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjectsBr J Clin Pharmacol. (2005)
  60. a b Janssens D, et al. Protection of mitochondrial respiration activity by bilobalideBiochem Pharmacol. (1999)
  61. ^ Janssens D, et al. Protection of hypoxia-induced ATP decrease in endothelial cells by ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalideBiochem Pharmacol. (1995)
  62. ^ Du G, et al. EGb 761 protects liver mitochondria against injury induced by in vitro anoxia/reoxygenationFree Radic Biol Med. (1999)
  63. ^ Eckert A, et al. Effects of EGb 761 Ginkgo biloba extract on mitochondrial function and oxidative stressPharmacopsychiatry. (2003)
  64. ^ Janssens D, et al. Protection by bilobalide of the ischaemia-induced alterations of the mitochondrial respiratory activityFundam Clin Pharmacol. (2000)
  65. ^ Janssens D, et al. Effect of venotropic drugs on the respiratory activity of isolated mitochondria and in endothelial cellsBr J Pharmacol. (2000)
  66. ^ Sastre J, et al. A Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents mitochondrial aging by protecting against oxidative stressFree Radic Biol Med. (1998)
  67. ^ Koch E. Inhibition of platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced aggregation of human thrombocytes by ginkgolides: considerations on possible bleeding complications after oral intake of Ginkgo biloba extractsPhytomedicine. (2005)
  68. ^ Bazan NG. The neuromessenger platelet-activating factor in plasticity and neurodegenerationProg Brain Res. (1998)
  69. ^ Akisü M, et al. Platelet-activating factor is an important mediator in hypoxic ischemic brain injury in the newborn rat. Flunarizine and Ginkgo biloba extract reduce PAF concentration in the brainBiol Neonate. (1998)
  70. ^ White HL, Scates PW, Cooper BR. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidaseLife Sci. (1996)
  71. ^ Wu WR, Zhu XZ. Involvement of monoamine oxidase inhibition in neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic toxicity in C57 miceLife Sci. (1999)
  72. a b c d Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Müller WE. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatmentPharmacol Res. (2009)
  73. a b c d e f g Yoshitake T, Yoshitake S, Kehr J. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortexBr J Pharmacol. (2010)
  74. ^ Watanabe CM, et al. The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine ginkgo bilobaProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2001)
  75. a b c Augustin S, et al. Gene Regulatory Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract and Its Flavonol and Terpenelactone Fractions in Mouse BrainJ Clin Biochem Nutr. (2009)
  76. ^ Kuchler-Bopp S, et al. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transthyretin by ependymoma cellsBrain Res. (2000)
  77. ^ Tsuzuki K, et al. Transthyretin binds amyloid beta peptides, Abeta1-42 and Abeta1-40 to form complex in the autopsied human kidney – possible role of transthyretin for abeta sequestrationNeurosci Lett. (2000)
  78. a b c Ramassamy C, et al. The Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb761, increases synaptosomal uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine: in-vitro and ex-vivo studiesJ Pharm Pharmacol. (1992)
  79. a b c d e Yeh KY, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract enhances noncontact erection in rats: the role of dopamine in the paraventricular nucleus and the mesolimbic systemNeuroscience. (2011)
  80. ^ Ramassamy C, et al. Prevention by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and trolox C of the decrease in synaptosomal dopamine or serotonin uptake following incubationBiochem Pharmacol. (1992)
  81. ^ Ramassamy C, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 or trolox C prevent the ascorbic acid/Fe2+ induced decrease in synaptosomal membrane fluidityFree Radic Res Commun. (1993)
  82. ^ Dillon KA, et al. Autoradiographic analysis of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding in the human brain postmortem: effects of age and alcoholBrain Res. (1991)
  83. ^ Huguet F, Drieu K, Piriou A. Decreased cerebral 5-HT1A receptors during ageing: reversal by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761)J Pharm Pharmacol. (1994)
  84. ^ Bolaños-Jiménez F, et al. Stress-induced 5-HT1A receptor desensitization: protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761)Fundam Clin Pharmacol. (1995)
  85. ^ Koyama T, et al. Enhancement of cortical and hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission through 5-HT1A receptor-mediated pathways by BAY x 3702 in freely moving ratsNeurosci Lett. (1999)
  86. ^ Izumi J, et al. Hippocampal serotonin 5-HT1A receptor enhances acetylcholine release in conscious ratsJ Neurochem. (1994)
  87. ^ Lummis SC. 5-HT(3) receptorsJ Biol Chem. (2012)
  88. a b Thompson AJ, et al. Ginkgolide B and bilobalide block the pore of the 5-HT₃receptor at a location that overlaps the picrotoxin binding siteNeuropharmacology. (2011)
  89. ^ Thompson AJ, Duke RK, Lummis SC. Binding sites for bilobalide, diltiazem, ginkgolide, and picrotoxinin at the 5-HT3 receptorMol Pharmacol. (2011)
  90. a b Yamamoto Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract improves spatial memory in rats mainly but not exclusively via a histaminergic mechanismBrain Res. (2007)
  91. ^ Chopin P, Briley M. Effects of four non-cholinergic cognitive enhancers in comparison with tacrine and galanthamine on scopolamine-induced amnesia in ratsPsychopharmacology (Berl). (1992)
  92. ^ Jahanshahi M, Nickmahzar EG, Babakordi F. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on scopolamine-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus of ratsAnat Sci Int. (2013)
  93. ^ Jahanshahi M, et al. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB 761) on astrocytes of rat hippocampus after exposure with scopolamineAnat Cell Biol. (2012)
  94. ^ Lee TF, Chen CF, Wang LC. Effect of ginkgolides on beta-amyloid-suppressed acetylocholine release from rat hippocampal slicesPhytother Res. (2004)
  95. ^ Burns A, et al. Clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs: a consensus statement from British Association for PsychopharmacologyJ Psychopharmacol. (2006)
  96. ^ Huang SH, et al. Bilobalide, a sesquiterpene trilactone from Ginkgo biloba, is an antagonist at recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA(A) receptorsEur J Pharmacol. (2003)
  97. ^ Kamei C, Okumura Y, Tasaka K. Influence of histamine depletion on learning and memory recollection in ratsPsychopharmacology (Berl). (1993)
  98. ^ Kamei C, Chung YH, Tasaka K. Influence of certain H1-blockers on the step-through active avoidance response in ratsPsychopharmacology (Berl). (1990)
  99. ^ Schneider C, et al. Similar deficits of central histaminergic system in patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer diseaseNeurosci Lett. (1997)
  100. ^ Higuchi M, et al. Histamine H(1) receptors in patients with Alzheimer’s disease assessed by positron emission tomographyNeuroscience. (2000)
  101. a b c d Tchantchou F, et al. Stimulation of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis by bilobalide and quercetin via common final pathway in hippocampal neuronsJ Alzheimers Dis. (2009)
  102. ^ Pittenger C, Duman RS. Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: a convergence of mechanismsNeuropsychopharmacology. (2008)
  103. ^ Nakagawa S, et al. Regulation of neurogenesis in adult mouse hippocampus by cAMP and the cAMP response element-binding proteinJ Neurosci. (2002)
  104. ^ Chen YS, et al. Effect of bilobalide on peripheral nerve regenerationBiomaterials. (2004)
  105. ^ Bruno C, et al. Regeneration of motor nerves in bilobalide-treated ratsPlanta Med. (1993)
  106. ^ Effect of extract of leave Ginkgo Biloba on crushed sciatic nerve regeneration.
  107. ^ Jin GH, et al. Effects of Ginkgolide on the development of NOS and AChE positive neurons in the embryonic basal forebrainCell Biol Int. (2006)
  108. a b Tchantchou F, et al. EGb 761 enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and phosphorylation of CREB in transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s diseaseFASEB J. (2007)
  109. a b c Zhang XY, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and its Val66Met gene polymorphism predict tardive dyskinesia treatment response to Ginkgo bilobaBiol Psychiatry. (2012)
  110. ^ Egan MF, et al. The BDNF val66met polymorphism affects activity-dependent secretion of BDNF and human memory and hippocampal functionCell. (2003)
  111. ^ Lee EJ, et al. Acute administration of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) affords neuroprotection against permanent and transient focal cerebral ischemia in Sprague-Dawley ratsJ Neurosci Res. (2002)
  112. ^ Nada SE, Shah ZA. Preconditioning with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761®) provides neuroprotection through HO1 and CRMP2Neurobiol Dis. (2012)
  113. ^ Saleem S, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract neuroprotective action is dependent on heme oxygenase 1 in ischemic reperfusion brain injuryStroke. (2008)
  114. ^ Zhuang H, et al. Induction of heme oxygenase 1 by Ginkgo biloba in neuronal cultures and potential implications in ischemiaCell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). (2002)
  115. ^ Luo Y, et al. Inhibition of amyloid-beta aggregation and caspase-3 activation by the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2002)
  116. ^ Sarris J, et al. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidenceEur Neuropsychopharmacol. (2011)
  117. ^ Hoerr R. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD): effects of EGb 761Pharmacopsychiatry. (2003)
  118. ^ Ward CP, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract: cognitive enhancer or antistress bufferPharmacol Biochem Behav. (2002)
  119. a b Rapin JR, et al. Demonstration of the “anti-stress” activity of an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) using a discrimination learning taskGen Pharmacol. (1994)
  120. ^ Woelk H, et al. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Psychiatr Res. (2007)
  121. ^ Marcilhac A, et al. Effect of chronic administration of Ginkgo biloba extract or Ginkgolide on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the ratLife Sci. (1998)
  122. a b Jezova D, et al. Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteersJ Physiol Pharmacol. (2002)
  123. a b c Rojas P, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) in the mouse forced swimming test: role of oxidative stressNeurochem Int. (2011)
  124. ^ Kamkaew N, et al. Bacopa monnieri Increases Cerebral Blood Flow in Rat Independent of Blood PressurePhytother Res. (2012)
  125. a b Zhang SJ, Xue ZY. Effect of Western medicine therapy assisted by Ginkgo biloba tablet on vascular cognitive impairment of none dementiaAsian Pac J Trop Med. (2012)
  126. ^ Mashayekh A, et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on cerebral blood flow assessed by quantitative MR perfusion imaging: a pilot studyNeuroradiology. (2011)
  127. ^ Santos RF, et al. Cognitive performance, SPECT, and blood viscosity in elderly non-demented people using Ginkgo bilobaPharmacopsychiatry. (2003)
  128. ^ Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on a Cerebral Ischemia Model in Gerbils.
  129. ^ Ma S, et al. Neuroprotective effect of ginkgolide K against acute ischemic stroke on middle cerebral ischemia occlusion in ratsJ Nat Med. (2012)
  130. a b c Kuller LH, et al. Does Ginkgo biloba reduce the risk of cardiovascular eventsCirc Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. (2010)
  131. ^ Zeng X, et al. Ginkgo biloba for acute ischaemic strokeCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2005)
  132. ^ Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteersPsychopharmacology (Berl). (2000)
  133. ^ Kennedy DO, et al. Modulation of cognitive performance following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo biloba extract administered to healthy young volunteersHum Psychopharmacol. (2007)
  134. ^ Chan E. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorderJ Dev Behav Pediatr. (2002)
  135. ^ Cala S, Crismon ML, Baumgartner J. A survey of herbal use in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder or depressionPharmacotherapy. (2003)
  136. ^ Salehi B, et al. Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trialProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2010)
  137. ^ Niederhofer H. Ginkgo biloba treating patients with attention-deficit disorderPhytother Res. (2010)
  138. ^ Sarris J, et al. Complementary medicines (herbal and nutritional products) in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review of the evidenceComplement Ther Med. (2011)
  139. a b c Brondino N, et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day MedicineEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2013)
  140. ^ D’Andrea G, et al. Efficacy of Ginkgolide B in the prophylaxis of migraine with auraNeurol Sci. (2009)
  141. ^ Solomon PR, et al. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trialJAMA. (2002)
  142. a b Elsabagh S, et al. Differential cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba after acute and chronic treatment in healthy young volunteersPsychopharmacology (Berl). (2005)
  143. ^ Stough C, et al. Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participantsInt J Neuropsychopharmacol. (2001)
  144. ^ Rigney U, Kimber S, Hindmarch I. The effects of acute doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteersPhytother Res. (1999)
  145. a b Kaschel R. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteersPhytomedicine. (2011)
  146. ^ Subhan Z, Hindmarch I. The psychopharmacological effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in normal healthy volunteersInt J Clin Pharmacol Res. (1984)
  147. ^ Canter PH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomised clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy peopleHum Psychopharmacol. (2007)
  148. ^ A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of tanakan in the treatment of idiopathic cognitive impairment in the elderly.
  149. ^ Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adultsJ Altern Complement Med. (2000)
  150. ^ Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findingsHum Psychopharmacol. (2002)
  151. ^ Bäurle P, Suter A, Wormstall H. Safety and effectiveness of a traditional ginkgo fresh plant extract – results from a clinical trialForsch Komplementmed. (2009)
  152. ^ Brautigam MR, et al. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled studyPhytomedicine. (1998)
  153. ^ Jonker C, Geerlings MI, Schmand B. Are memory complaints predictive for dementia? A review of clinical and population-based studiesInt J Geriatr Psychiatry. (2000)
  154. ^ Vellas B, et al. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trialLancet Neurol. (2012)
  155. a b DeKosky ST, et al. Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a randomized controlled trialJAMA. (2008)
  156. ^ Snitz BE, et al. Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trialJAMA. (2009)
  157. ^ Kanowski S, et al. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementiaPharmacopsychiatry. (1996)
  158. a b c Herrschaft H, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of a daily dose of 240 mgJ Psychiatr Res. (2012)
  159. a b Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N; GOTADAY Study Group. Efficacy and tolerability of a once daily formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: results from a randomised controlled trialPharmacopsychiatry. (2012)
  160. a b Le Bars PL, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study GroupJAMA. (1997)
  161. ^ McCarney R, et al. Ginkgo biloba for mild to moderate dementia in a community setting: a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialInt J Geriatr Psychiatry. (2008)
  162. ^ Gaus W. An example for an underpowered study: a comment on Ginkgo biloba for mild to moderate dementia in a community setting by McCarney et alInt J Geriatr Psychiatry. (2009)
  163. ^ Ernst E. A comment on Ginkgo biloba for mild to moderate dementia in a community setting by McCarney et alInt J Geriatr Psychiatry. (2009)
  164. ^ Hindmarch I. A comment on Ginkgo biloba for mild to moderate dementia in a community setting by McCarney et alInt J Geriatr Psychiatry. (2009)
  165. ^ Napryeyenko O, Borzenko I; GINDEM-NP Study Group. Ginkgo biloba special extract in dementia with neuropsychiatric features. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trialArzneimittelforschung. (2007)
  166. a b Yancheva S, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R), donepezil or both combined in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, double-blind, exploratory trialAging Ment Health. (2009)
  167. ^ Murray BJ, Cowen PJ, Sharpley AL. The effect of Li 1370, extract of Ginkgo biloba, on REM sleep in humansPharmacopsychiatry. (2001)
  168. ^ Hemmeter U, et al. Polysomnographic effects of adjuvant ginkgo biloba therapy in patients with major depression medicated with trimipraminePharmacopsychiatry. (2001)
  169. ^ Rao SM, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. I. Frequency, patterns, and predictionNeurology. (1991)
  170. ^ Amato MP, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis: a reappraisal after 10 yearsArch Neurol. (2001)
  171. ^ Lovera JF, et al. Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS: a randomized placebo-controlled trialNeurology. (2012)
  172. ^ Yao JK, Reddy R, van Kammen DP. Reduced level of plasma antioxidant uric acid in schizophreniaPsychiatry Res. (1998)
  173. ^ Kuloglu M, et al. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorderCell Biochem Funct. (2002)
  174. ^ Bilici M, et al. Antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in major depression: alterations by antidepressant treatmentsJ Affect Disord. (2001)
  175. a b Yao JK, et al. Reduced status of plasma total antioxidant capacity in schizophreniaSchizophr Res. (1998)
  176. a b c d Atmaca M, et al. The effect of extract of ginkgo biloba addition to olanzapine on therapeutic effect and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with schizophreniaPsychiatry Clin Neurosci. (2005)
  177. a b Zhang XY, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophreniaJ Clin Psychiatry. (2001)
  178. a b c Doruk A, Uzun O, Ozşahin A. A placebo-controlled study of extract of ginkgo biloba added to clozapine in patients with treatment-resistant schizophreniaInt Clin Psychopharmacol. (2008)
  179. ^ Remington G. Tardive dyskinesia: eliminated, forgotten, or overshadowedCurr Opin Psychiatry. (2007)
  180. ^ Lohr JB, Kuczenski R, Niculescu AB. Oxidative mechanisms and tardive dyskinesiaCNS Drugs. (2003)
  181. ^ Tan YL, Zhou DF, Zhang XY. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia: association with dyskinetic movementsSchizophr Res. (2005)
  182. ^ Nishio T, et al. Medial nigral dopamine neurons have rich neurotrophin support in humansNeuroreport. (1998)
  183. ^ Tsai G, et al. Markers of glutamatergic neurotransmission and oxidative stress associated with tardive dyskinesiaAm J Psychiatry. (1998)
  184. ^ Altar CA, et al. Anterograde transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its role in the brainNature. (1997)
  185. ^ Cheng B, Mattson MP. NT-3 and BDNF protect CNS neurons against metabolic/excitotoxic insultsBrain Res. (1994)
  186. a b c Niederhofer H. First preliminary results of an observation of Ginkgo Biloba treating patients with autistic disorderPhytother Res. (2009)
  187. ^ Itil TM, et al. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrinePsychopharmacol Bull. (1998)
  188. ^ Akhondzadeh S, et al. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of piracetam added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorderChild Psychiatry Hum Dev. (2008)
  189. ^ Hasanzadeh E, et al. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba added to risperidone in patients with autistic disordersChild Psychiatry Hum Dev. (2012)
  190. a b Campos-Toimil M, et al. Inhibition of type 4 phosphodiesterase by rolipram and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) decreases agonist-induced rises in internal calcium in human endothelial cellsArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (2000)
  191. ^ Campos-Toimil M, et al. Short-term or long-term treatments with a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor result in opposing agonist-induced Ca(2+) responses in endothelial cellsBr J Pharmacol. (2008)
  192. ^ Ylä-Herttuala S, et al. Lipoproteins in normal and atherosclerotic aortaEur Heart J. (1990)
  193. a b c Ou HC, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract attenuates oxLDL-induced oxidative functional damages in endothelial cellsJ Appl Physiol. (2009)
  194. ^ Chen XP, et al. Oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 mediates oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: role of reactive oxygen speciesVascul Pharmacol. (2007)
  195. ^ Ou HC, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract attenuates oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction via an AMPK-dependent mechanismJ Appl Physiol. (2013)
  196. ^ Pierre SV, et al. The standardized Ginkgo biloba extract Egb-761 protects vascular endothelium exposed to oxidized low density lipoproteinsCell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). (2008)
  197. ^ Li AC, Glass CK. The macrophage foam cell as a target for therapeutic interventionNat Med. (2002)
  198. ^ de Winther MP, Hofker MH. Scavenging new insights into atherogenesisJ Clin Invest. (2000)
  199. ^ Macrophages lacking scavenger receptor A show a decrease in binding and uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and of apoptotic thymocytes, but not of oxidatively damaged red blood cells.
  200. ^ Park YM, Febbraio M, Silverstein RL. CD36 modulates migration of mouse and human macrophages in response to oxidized LDL and may contribute to macrophage trapping in the arterial intimaJ Clin Invest. (2009)
  201. ^ Oram JF, Vaughan AM. ATP-Binding cassette cholesterol transporters and cardiovascular diseaseCirc Res. (2006)
  202. ^ Van Eck M, et al. Scavenger receptor BI and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in reverse cholesterol transport and atherosclerosisCurr Opin Lipidol. (2005)
  203. ^ Sevov M, Elfineh L, Cavelier LB. Resveratrol regulates the expression of LXR-alpha in human macrophagesBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2006)
  204. ^ Anthocyanins Induce Cholesterol Efflux from Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages THE ROLE OF THE PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR γ-LIVER X RECEPTOR α-ABCA1 PATHWAY.
  205. a b c d Tsai JY, et al. EGb761 ameliorates the formation of foam cells by regulating the expression of SR-A and ABCA1: role of haem oxygenase-1Cardiovasc Res. (2010)
  206. ^ Wei JM, et al. Ginkgo suppresses atherosclerosis through downregulating the expression of connexin 43 in rabbitsArch Med Sci. (2013)
  207. ^ Blackburn JP, et al. Upregulation of connexin43 gap junctions during early stages of human coronary atherosclerosisArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (1995)
  208. ^ Kwak BR, et al. Reduced connexin43 expression inhibits atherosclerotic lesion formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient miceCirculation. (2003)
  209. ^ Burnier L, et al. Intercellular communication in atherosclerosisPhysiology (Bethesda). (2009)
  210. a b c d e Rodríguez M, et al. Reduction of atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation and size by Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in cardiovascular high-risk patientsAtherosclerosis. (2007)
  211. ^ Klebanoff SJ. Myeloperoxidase: friend and foeJ Leukoc Biol. (2005)
  212. ^ Hansson GK. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery diseaseN Engl J Med. (2005)
  213. a b c Mansour SM, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) normalizes hypertension in 2K, 1C hypertensive rats: role of antioxidant mechanisms, ACE inhibiting activity and improvement of endothelial dysfunctionPhytomedicine. (2011)
  214. a b Kubota Y, et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract feeding on salt-induced hypertensive Dahl ratsBiol Pharm Bull. (2006)
  215. a b c d Kubota Y, et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on blood pressure and vascular endothelial response by acetylcholine in spontaneously hypertensive ratsJ Pharm Pharmacol. (2006)
  216. ^ Romero JC, Reckelhoff JF. State-of-the-Art lecture. Role of angiotensin and oxidative stress in essential hypertensionHypertension. (1999)
  217. ^ Angiotensin II–mediated Hypertension in the Rat Increases Vascular Superoxide Production via Membrane NADH/NADPH Oxidase Activation.
  218. ^ Gryglewski RJ, Palmer RM, Moncada S. Superoxide anion is involved in the breakdown of endothelium-derived vascular relaxing factorNature. (1986)
  219. ^ Maxwell S, Greig L. Anti-oxidants– a protective role in cardiovascular diseaseExpert Opin Pharmacother. (2001)
  220. ^ Umegaki K, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract attenuates the development of hypertension in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive ratsClin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. (2000)
  221. ^ McKenna DJ, Jones K, Hughes K. Efficacy, safety, and use of ginkgo biloba in clinical and preclinical applicationsAltern Ther Health Med. (2001)
  222. ^ Auguet M, et al. Pharmacological bases of the vascular impact of Ginkgo biloba extractPresse Med. (1986)
  223. ^ Förstermann U, Münzel T. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular disease: from marvel to menaceCirculation. (2006)
  224. a b Koltermann A, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 increases endothelial nitric oxide production in vitro and in vivoCell Mol Life Sci. (2007)
  225. ^ Keheyan G, Dunn LA, Hall WL. Acute effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on vascular function and blood pressurePlant Foods Hum Nutr. (2011)
  226. ^ Suter A, Niemer W, Klopp R. A new ginkgo fresh plant extract increases microcirculation and radical scavenging activity in elderly patientsAdv Ther. (2011)
  227. a b Mehlsen J, et al. Effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in healthy volunteersClin Physiol Funct Imaging. (2002)
  228. a b c Boelsma E, et al. Evidence of the regulatory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on skin blood flow and study of its effects on urinary metabolites in healthy humansPlanta Med. (2004)
  229. ^ Brinkley TE, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and womenAm J Hypertens. (2010)
  230. ^ Norgren L, et al. Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II)J Vasc Surg. (2007)
  231. ^ Hirsch AT, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): a collaborative report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease): endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Society for Vascular Nursing; TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus; and Vascular Disease FoundationCirculation. (2006)
  232. ^ Farah BQ, et al. Predictors of walking capacity in peripheral arterial disease patientsClinics (Sao Paulo). (2013)
  233. a b Pittler MH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trialsAm J Med. (2000)
  234. ^ Bauer U. 6-Month double-blind randomised clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba extract versus placebo in two parallel groups in patients suffering from peripheral arterial insufficiencyArzneimittelforschung. (1984)
  235. ^ Peters H, Kieser M, Hölscher U. Demonstration of the efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication–a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trialVasa. (1998)
  236. ^ Thomson GJ, et al. A clinical trial of Gingkco Biloba Extract in patients with intermittent claudicationInt Angiol. (1990)
  237. ^ Gardner CD, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on treadmill walking time among adults with peripheral artery disease: a randomized clinical trialJ Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. (2008)
  238. ^ Mouren X, Caillard P, Schwartz F. Study of the antiischemic action of EGb 761 in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease by TcPo2 determinationAngiology. (1994)
  239. a b Moraga FA, et al. Ginkgo biloba decreases acute mountain sickness in people ascending to high altitude at Ollagüe (3696 m) in northern ChileWilderness Environ Med. (2007)
  240. a b c d Leadbetter G, et al. Ginkgo biloba does–and does not–prevent acute mountain sicknessWilderness Environ Med. (2009)
  241. ^ Roncin JP, Schwartz F, D’Arbigny P. EGb 761 in control of acute mountain sickness and vascular reactivity to cold exposureAviat Space Environ Med. (1996)
  242. a b Gertsch JH, et al. Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of severe acute mountain sickness (AMS) starting one day before rapid ascentHigh Alt Med Biol. (2002)
  243. a b Gertsch JH, et al. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: the prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT)BMJ. (2004)
  244. a b Chow T, et al. Ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness: a randomized, placebo-controlled trialArch Intern Med. (2005)
  245. a b Hsu CL, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract confers protection from cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis in human lung endothelial cells: Role of heme oxygenase-1Pulm Pharmacol Ther. (2009)
  246. a b Liu XP, et al. Extract of Ginkgo biloba induces phase 2 genes through Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathwayLife Sci. (2007)
  247. ^ Chou PB, Morse CA. Understanding premenstrual syndrome from a Chinese medicine perspectiveJ Altern Complement Med. (2005)
  248. ^ Chou PB, Morse CA, Xu H. A controlled trial of Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndromeJ Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. (2008)
  249. ^ [Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
  250. ^ Ozgoli G, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndromeJ Altern Complement Med. (2009)
  251. a b Cohen AJ, Bartlik B. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunctionJ Sex Marital Ther. (1998)
  252. ^ Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugsHum Psychopharmacol. (2004)
  253. ^ Kang BJ, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunctionHum Psychopharmacol. (2002)
  254. ^ Sintchak G, Geer JH. A vaginal plethysmograph systemPsychophysiology. (1975)
  255. ^ McKay D. Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidenceAltern Med Rev. (2004)
  256. ^ Sachs BD. Contextual approaches to the physiology and classification of erectile function, erectile dysfunction, and sexual arousalNeurosci Biobehav Rev. (2000)
  257. ^ Sachs BD. Placing erection in context: the reflexogenic-psychogenic dichotomy reconsideredNeurosci Biobehav Rev. (1995)
  258. ^ Argiolas A, Melis MR. Central control of penile erection: role of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamusProg Neurobiol. (2005)
  259. ^ Succu S, et al. Stimulation of dopamine receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats induces penile erection and increases extra-cellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens: Involvement of central oxytocinNeuropharmacology. (2007)
  260. ^ Kippin TE, et al. Opposing roles of the nucleus accumbens and anterior lateral hypothalamic area in the control of sexual behaviour in the male ratEur J Neurosci. (2004)
  261. ^ Burnett AL, et al. Immunohistochemical description of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in human clitorisJ Urol. (1997)
  262. ^ Kobayashi N, et al. Effect of leaves of Ginkgo biloba on hair regrowth in C3H strain miceYakugaku Zasshi. (1993)
  263. ^ General method for determining flavonoids in medicinal plants and raw cosmetics using HPLC with a photodiode array detector.
  264. a b Chuarienthong P, Lourith N, Leelapornpisid P. Clinical efficacy comparison of anti-wrinkle cosmetics containing herbal flavonoidsInt J Cosmet Sci. (2010)
  265. ^ Ernst E, Stevinson C. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus: a reviewClin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. (1999)
  266. ^ Han SS, et al. Clonazepam quiets tinnitus: a randomised crossover study with Ginkgo bilobaJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. (2012)
  267. ^ Ernst E. Marketing studies and scientific research must be distinctBMJ. (2001)
  268. ^ Hilton MP, Zimmermann EF, Hunt WT. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitusCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2013)
  269. ^ Levene RZ. Low tension glaucoma: a critical review and new materialSurv Ophthalmol. (1980)
  270. ^ Park JW, et al. Short-term effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on peripapillary retinal blood flow in normal tension glaucomaKorean J Ophthalmol. (2011)
  271. ^ Quaranta L, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucomaOphthalmology. (2003)
  272. ^ [No authors listed. Comparison of glaucomatous progression between untreated patients with normal-tension glaucoma and patients with therapeutically reduced intraocular pressures. Collaborative Normal-Tension Glaucoma Study GroupAm J Ophthalmol. (1998)
  273. ^ Chung HS, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocityJ Ocul Pharmacol Ther. (1999)
  274. ^ Wimpissinger B, et al. Influence of Ginkgo biloba on ocular blood flowActa Ophthalmol Scand. (2007)
  275. ^ Russo V, et al. Clinical efficacy of a Ginkgo biloba extract in the topical treatment of allergic conjunctivitisEur J Ophthalmol. (2009)
  276. a b Li XS, et al. Effect of Ginkgo leaf extract on vascular endothelial function in patients with early stage diabetic nephropathyChin J Integr Med. (2009)
  277. ^ Attia A, et al. Phase II study of Ginkgo biloba in irradiated brain tumor patients: effect on cognitive function, quality of life, and moodJ Neurooncol. (2012)
  278. ^ Biggs ML, et al. Ginkgo biloba and risk of cancer: secondary analysis of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) StudyPharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. (2010)
  279. ^ Ioannidis JP. Why most published research findings are falsePLoS Med. (2005)
  280. ^ Porter JM, et al. Evaluation and management of patients with Raynaud’s syndromeAm J Surg. (1981)
  281. ^ Raynaud’s Phenomenon.
  282. ^ Thompson AE, Pope JE. Calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud’s phenomenon: a meta-analysisRheumatology (Oxford). (2005)
  283. ^ Bredie SJ, Jong MC. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trialJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol. (2012)
  284. ^ Choi WS, et al. To compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine sustained release with Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon in South Korea; Korean Raynaud study (KOARA study)Clin Rheumatol. (2009)
  285. ^ Whitton ME, et al. Interventions for vitiligoCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2006)
  286. ^ Porter J, et al. Response to cosmetic disfigurement: patients with vitiligoCutis. (1987)
  287. ^ Ongenae K, et al. Psychosocial effects of vitiligoJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. (2006)
  288. ^ Forschner T, Buchholtz S, Stockfleth E. Current state of vitiligo therapy–evidence-based analysis of the literatureJ Dtsch Dermatol Ges. (2007)
  289. ^ Szczurko O, et al. Ginkgo biloba for the treatment of vitilgo vulgaris: an open label pilot clinical trialBMC Complement Altern Med. (2011)
  290. a b Parsad D, Pandhi R, Juneja A. Effectiveness of oral Ginkgo biloba in treating limited, slowly spreading vitiligoClin Exp Dermatol. (2003)
  291. a b Kennedy DO, et al. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserineHum Psychopharmacol. (2007)
  292. a b Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Acute, dose-dependent cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and their combination in healthy young volunteers: differential interactions with cognitive demandHum Psychopharmacol. (2002)
  293. a b Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adultsPhysiol Behav. (2002)
  294. ^ Wolf HR. Does Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 provide additional effects on coagulation and bleeding when added to acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg dailyDrugs R D. (2006)
  295. ^ Gardner CD, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) and aspirin on platelet aggregation and platelet function analysis among older adults at risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized clinical trialBlood Coagul Fibrinolysis. (2007)
  296. ^ Rowin J, Lewis SL. Spontaneous bilateral subdural hematomas associated with chronic Ginkgo biloba ingestionNeurology. (1996)
  297. ^ Miller LG, Freeman B. Possible subdural hematoma associated with Ginkgo bilobaJ Herb Pharmacother. (2002)
  298. ^ Spontaneous Hyphema Associated with Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba Extract.