Vitamin A

Vitamin A, Vitamin A, beta carotene, retinol, retinoic acid

Vitamin A belongs to the fat-soluble group of vitamins, it is stored in different body tissues and plays very important functions. The most abundant form of vitamin A is retinol, a precursor of other forms of this vitamin. Its main function is related to eye health, mainly in cornea protection. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to serious health complications, such as night blindness, which is the inability or difficulty to see in darker settings.

Nutraceutic

  • Origin Plant Based, Animal Product, Synthetic
  • Source Eggs, Fish, Fruits, Vegetables, Carrots, Fish Oil, Synthetic
  • Type Vitamin

Eye Health

The eyes are very important organs for the quality of life in general. They are extremely sensitive, thus they deserve preventive care because when they are harmed, they are not easily treated. The compounds used for eye health are mainly specific antioxidants and fatty acids.
  • Eye Function

    The eyes are extremely sensitive, thus they deserve preventive care because when they are harmed, they are not easily treated. The compounds used for eye health are mainly specific antioxidants and fatty acids.

Immunity

The immune system is made up of cells, tissues and organs that act in the organism's defense against the harmful effects of external microorganisms. The supplements indicated for immunity act as strengthening agents of this system, increasing the antibodies production and, consequently, its defense activity.
  • Preventive Immunity

    White blood cells - or leukocytes - are the body's defense cells that destroy foreign agents, for example, bacteria, viruses and toxic substances that attack our body and cause infections or other diseases. There are also enzymes that refer to the antioxidant defense system that plays the role of inhibiting and/or reducing the damage caused by the harmful action of free radicals or non-radical reactive species.
  • Age Range Children (0-12), Teenagers (13-19), Adults (20-59), Seniors (>60)
  • Toxicity May be toxic in high doses
  • Side effects Headaches, Nausea, Joint Pains, Loss of Appetite, Sensibility to Light Exposure, Skin Rashes
  • Warnings Hypervitaminosis A (Excess Vitamin A)

Why be Careful

Consuming too much vitamin A can negatively affect health. In extremely high doses, hypervitaminosis A may occur, which can cause liver damage and increased cranial pressure.

References

  1. ^ Schreiber R, et al. Retinyl ester hydrolases and their roles in vitamin A homeostasisBiochim Biophys Acta. (2012)
  2. a b O’Byrne SM, Blaner WS. Retinol and retinyl esters: biochemistry and physiologyJ Lipid Res. (2013)
  3. ^ Burri BJ, Chang JS, Neidlinger TR. β-Cryptoxanthin- and α-carotene-rich foods have greater apparent bioavailability than β-carotene-rich foods in Western dietsBr J Nutr. (2011)
  4. ^ Federspiel SJ1, et al. Extracellular matrix biosynthesis by cultured fetal rat lung epithelial cells. IV. Effects of chronic exposure to retinoic acid on growth, differentiation, and collagen biosynthesisLab Invest. (1991)
  5. a b Bauer EA, Seltzer JL, Eisen AZ. Retinoic acid inhibition of collagenase and gelatinase expression in human skin fibroblast cultures. Evidence for a dual mechanismJ Invest Dermatol. (1983)
  6. a b Bauer EA, Seltzer JL, Eisen AZ. Inhibition of collagen degradative enzymes by retinoic acid in vitroJ Am Acad Dermatol. (1982)
  7. ^ Schwartz E1, et al. In vivo prevention of corticosteroid-induced skin atrophy by tretinoin in the hairless mouse is accompanied by modulation of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and fibronectinJ Invest Dermatol. (1994)
  8. ^ Kligman LH1, et al. Topical tretinoin prevents corticosteroid-induced atrophy without lessening the anti-inflammatory effectCurr Probl Dermatol. (1993)
  9. ^ Clark SD1, Kobayashi DK, Welgus HG. Regulation of the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and collagenase by retinoids and glucocorticoids in human fibroblastsJ Clin Invest. (1987)
  10. a b c d Kafi R1, et al. Improvement of naturally aged skin with vitamin A (retinol)Arch Dermatol. (2007)
  11. ^ Fisher GJ1, et al. Pathophysiology of premature skin aging induced by ultraviolet lightN Engl J Med. (1997)
  12. ^ Fisher GJ1, et al. Mechanisms of photoaging and chronological skin agingArch Dermatol. (2002)
  13. a b Griffiths CE1, et al. Restoration of collagen formation in photodamaged human skin by tretinoin (retinoic acid)N Engl J Med. (1993)
  14. ^ Quan T1, et al. Solar ultraviolet irradiation reduces collagen in photoaged human skin by blocking transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor/Smad signalingAm J Pathol. (2004)
  15. a b c d Weiss JS1, et al. Topical tretinoin improves photoaged skin. A double-blind vehicle-controlled studyJAMA. (1988)
  16. a b c Griffiths CE1, et al. Two concentrations of topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) cause similar improvement of photoaging but different degrees of irritation. A double-blind, vehicle-controlled comparison of 0.1% and 0.025% tretinoin creamsArch Dermatol. (1995)
  17. ^ Griffiths CE1, et al. Topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) treatment of hyperpigmented lesions associated with photoaging in Chinese and Japanese patients: a vehicle-controlled trialJ Am Acad Dermatol. (1994)
  18. a b Weinstein GD1, et al. Topical tretinoin for treatment of photodamaged skin. A multicenter studyArch Dermatol. (1991)