Yerba Mate

Yerba Mate, Ilex paraguariensis, Mate, St. Hilaire, Aquifoliaceae

Yerba mate is a tree of the aquifoliaceous family, native to the subtropical region of South America. It is consumed as mate tea, chimarrão or tereré in Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia and Chile. Several studies have analyzed the benefit that this plant can bring to the organism, as it contains alkaloids, folic and caffeic acids, ##vitamins## and ##minerals##, glycids, ##lipids##, in addition to cellulose, dextrin, saccharin and gums.

Nutraceutic

  • Origin Plant Based
  • Source Itself
  • Type Phytochemicals

Weight Management

Total body weight takes into account all body elements, such as organs, muscles, bones, fluids, fat, etc. The weight loss process depends on a negative energy balance (spending more calories than the ones consumed), but there are substances that can help the body to increase this deficit. Among them, there are thermogenics, fibers, appetite suppressants, fat absorption blockers and some others.
  • Fat Loss

    Fat loss is a different process then losing body weight, because when you lose weight, it does not necessarily mean that there is fat loss. For fat loss to happen, caloric deficit and practice of exercises are necessary. There are certain supplements that assist the metabolism of energy and nutrients, which cause the body to control appetite, increase its metabolic rate and reduce the absorption of macronutrients during digestion.
  • Age Range Teenagers (13-19), Adults (20-59), Seniors (>60)
  • Toxicity May be toxic in high doses
  • Side effects Nausea, Tachycardia, Insomnia, Abdominal Pain, Gastrointestinal Disturbs, Vomiting
  • Warnings Diabetes, Pregnancy, Cardiovascular Diseases

Why be Careful

The consumption of yerba mate is not recommended for children and pregnant women, for its caffeine content. In diabetics, the caffeine in yerba mate can affect the sugar process and complicate its control in the blood. It can also lead to irregular heartbeat in individuals with cardiovascular diseases or disorders.

References

  1. ^ Binaghi MJ, Pellegrino NR, Valencia ME. Mineral bioaccessibility in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St) infusions and mixtures with iron fortified milkArch Latinoam Nutr. (2011)
  2. ^ Miranda DD, et al. Protective effects of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on H2O2-induced DNA damage and DNA repair in miceMutagenesis. (2008)
  3. a b c d e Andersen T, Fogh J. Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patientsJ Hum Nutr Diet. (2001)
  4. ^ Bracesco N, et al. Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: minireviewJ Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  5. a b Heck CI, de Mejia EG. Yerba Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis): a comprehensive review on chemistry, health implications, and technological considerationsJ Food Sci. (2007)
  6. a b Silva RD, et al. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar ratsFitoterapia. (2011)
  7. ^ Vieira MA, et al. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the processing stages of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis)Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. (2010)
  8. ^ Kamangar F, et al. High levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mate drinksCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (2008)
  9. a b c d e Gosmann G, et al. Phenolic Compounds from Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 PreadipocytesPlant Foods Hum Nutr. (2012)
  10. ^ Validation of an LC Method for Polyphenol Assay in Extractive Solutions from Ilex paraguariensis (Mate).
  11. a b de Souza LM, et al. Comprehensive analysis of maté (Ilex paraguariensis) compounds: development of chemical strategies for matesaponin analysis by mass spectrometryJ Chromatogr A. (2011)
  12. ^ Pomilio AB, Trajtemberg S, Vitale AA. High-performance capillary electrophoresis analysis of mate infusions prepared from stems and leaves of Ilex paraguariensis using automated micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographyPhytochem Anal. (2002)
  13. a b Gosmann G, et al. Triterpenoid saponins from Ilex paraguariensisJ Nat Prod. (1995)
  14. ^ Coelho GC, et al. Quantification of saponins in extractive solution of mate leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.)J Med Food. (2010)
  15. a b Xu GH, et al. Two acetylated megastigmane glycosides from the leaves of Ilex paraguariensisArch Pharm Res. (2010)
  16. a b c Bioactive compounds content of chimarrão infusions related to the moisture of yerba maté (Ilex Paraguariensis) leaves.
  17. ^ Peixoto MP, et al. LC-UV Assay Method and UPLC/Q-TOF-MS Characterisation of Saponins from Ilex Paraguariensis A. St. Hil. (Mate) Unripe FruitsPhytochem Anal. (2011)
  18. ^ Kraemer KH, et al. Matesaponin 5, a highly polar saponin from Ilex paraguariensisPhytochemistry. (1996)
  19. ^ Polyphenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, and Quinone Reductase Activity of an Aqueous Extract of Ardisia compressa in Comparison to Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and Green (Camellia sinensis) Teas.
  20. ^ Dudonné S, et al. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC assaysJ Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  21. ^ Hussein GM, et al. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) promotes satiety and body weight lowering in mice: involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1Biol Pharm Bull. (2011)
  22. a b Matsumoto RL, et al. Effects of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) ingestion on mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant status in healthy young womenJ Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  23. a b c d Boaventura BC, et al. Association of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjectsNutrition. (2012)
  24. a b c d e Klein GA, et al. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves glycemic and lipid profiles of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes individuals: a pilot studyJ Am Coll Nutr. (2011)
  25. a b c d Martins F, et al. Maté tea inhibits in vitro pancreatic lipase activity and has hypolipidemic effect on high-fat diet-induced obese miceObesity (Silver Spring). (2010)
  26. ^ Sugimoto S, et al. Brazilian natural medicines. III. structures of triterpene oligoglycosides and lipase inhibitors from mate, leaves of ilex paraguariensisChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2009)
  27. ^ Matsumoto RL, et al. Effects of maté tea intake on ex vivo LDL peroxidation induced by three different pathwaysNutrients. (2009)
  28. ^ Menini T, et al. Protective action of Ilex paraguariensis extract against free radical inactivation of paraoxonase-1 in high-density lipoproteinPlanta Med. (2007)
  29. ^ Martins F, et al. Consumption of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) decreases the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in mouse liverBr J Nutr. (2009)
  30. a b de Morais EC, et al. Consumption of yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) improves serum lipid parameters in healthy dyslipidemic subjects and provides an additional LDL-cholesterol reduction in individuals on statin therapyJ Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  31. a b c d Oliveira DM, et al. Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) aqueous extract decreases intestinal SGLT1 gene expression but does not affect other biochemical parameters in alloxan-diabetic Wistar ratsJ Agric Food Chem. (2008)
  32. a b c d Kang YR, et al. Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat dietLab Anim Res. (2012)
  33. a b c d Arçari DP, et al. Antiobesity effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) in high-fat diet-induced obese miceObesity (Silver Spring). (2009)
  34. a b c Pang J, Choi Y, Park T. Ilex paraguariensis extract ameliorates obesity induced by high-fat diet: potential role of AMPK in the visceral adipose tissueArch Biochem Biophys. (2008)
  35. ^ Hussein GM, et al. Protective and ameliorative effects of maté (Ilex paraguariensis) on metabolic syndrome in TSOD micePhytomedicine. (2011)
  36. a b Martinet A, Hostettmann K, Schutz Y. Thermogenic effects of commercially available plant preparations aimed at treating human obesityPhytomedicine. (1999)
  37. ^ Alkhatib A. Yerba Maté (Illex Paraguariensis) ingestion augments fat oxidation and energy expenditure during exercise at various submaximal intensitiesNutr Metab (Lond). (2014)
  38. ^ Puangpraphant S, et al. Dicaffeoylquinic acids in Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) inhibit NF-κB nucleus translocation in macrophages and induce apoptosis by activating caspases-8 and -3 in human colon cancer cellsMol Nutr Food Res. (2011)
  39. a b c Puangpraphant S, de Mejia EG. Saponins in yerba mate tea ( Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil) and quercetin synergistically inhibit iNOS and COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages through NFkappaB pathwaysJ Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  40. ^ Bixby M, et al. Ilex paraguariensis extracts are potent inhibitors of nitrosative stress: a comparative study with green tea and wines using a protein nitration model and mammalian cell cytotoxicityLife Sci. (2005)
  41. ^ Cantoni O, et al. Survival pathways triggered by peroxynitrite in cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineageComp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. (2005)
  42. ^ Hoeldtke RD, et al. Nitrosative stress, uric Acid, and peripheral nerve function in early type 1 diabetesDiabetes. (2002)
  43. ^ Lanzetti M, et al. Mate tea reduced acute lung inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smokeNutrition. (2008)
  44. a b Arçari DP, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) ameliorate insulin resistance in mice with high fat diet-induced obesityMol Cell Endocrinol. (2011)
  45. ^ Dasanayake AP, Silverman AJ, Warnakulasuriya S. Maté drinking and oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysisOral Oncol. (2010)
  46. ^ De Stefani E, et al. Risk factors for laryngeal cancerCancer. (1987)
  47. ^ Castelletto R, et al. Alcohol, tobacco, diet, mate drinking, and esophageal cancer in ArgentinaCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (1994)
  48. a b Coffee, Tea, Mate, Methylxanthines and Methylglyoxal.
  49. ^ De Stefani E, et al. Mate drinking, alcohol, tobacco, diet, and esophageal cancer in UruguayCancer Res. (1990)
  50. ^ Victora CG, et al. Hot beverages and oesophageal cancer in southern Brazil: a case-control studyInt J Cancer. (1987)
  51. ^ Rolón PA, et al. Hot and cold mate drinking and esophageal cancer in ParaguayCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (1995)
  52. ^ De Stefani E, et al. Mate drinking and risk of lung cancer in males: a case-control study from UruguayCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (1996)
  53. ^ Non-alcoholic beverages and risk of bladder cancer in Uruguay.
  54. ^ Iscovich J, et al. Tobacco smoking, occupational exposure and bladder cancer in ArgentinaInt J Cancer. (1987)
  55. ^ Purcaro G, et al. Characterization of the yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) volatile fraction using solid-phase microextraction-comprehensive 2-D GC-MSJ Sep Sci. (2009)
  56. ^ Abnet CC. Carcinogenic food contaminantsCancer Invest. (2007)
  57. ^ Gomes da Costa AM, et al. Fractionation of aluminum in commercial green and roasted yerba mate samples ( Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) and in their infusionsJ Agric Food Chem. (2009)
  58. ^ Bragança VL, Melnikov P, Zanoni LZ. Trace elements in different brands of yerba mate teaBiol Trace Elem Res. (2011)
  59. ^ Prediger RD, et al. Effects of acute administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) in animal models of learning and memoryJ Ethnopharmacol. (2008)
  60. ^ de Andrade F, et al. Safety assessment of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) dried extract: results of acute and 90 days subchronic toxicity studies in rats and rabbitsFood Chem Toxicol. (2012)
  61. Szymańska K, et al. Drinking of maté and the risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Latin America: a case-control studyCancer Causes Control. (2010)
  62. Conforti AS, Gallo ME, Saraví FD. Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) consumption is associated with higher bone mineral density in postmenopausal womenBone. (2012)