1. a b Gariballa SE, Forster SJ, Powers HJ. Effects of mixed dietary supplements on total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialInt J Vitam Nutr Res. (2012)
  2. a b Rocco A, et al. Vitamin B12 supplementation improves rates of sustained viral response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virusGut. (2013)
  3. ^ Chavain N, Biot C. Organometallic complexes: new tools for chemotherapyCurr Med Chem. (2010)
  4. a b c Randaccio L, et al. Vitamin B12: unique metalorganic compounds and the most complex vitaminsMolecules. (2010)
  7. ^ HODGKIN DG, et al. The crystal structure of the hexacarboxylic acid derived from B12 and the molecular structure of the vitaminNature. (1955)
  8. ^ HODGKIN DC, et al. Structure of vitamin B12Nature. (1956)
  9. a b c d e f g O’Leary F, Samman S. Vitamin B12 in health and diseaseNutrients. (2010)
  10. ^ Scott JM. Bioavailability of vitamin B12Eur J Clin Nutr. (1997)
  11. ^ Brown KL. Chemistry and enzymology of vitamin B12Chem Rev. (2005)
  12. ^ Bottiglieri T. Folate, vitamin B₁₂, and S-adenosylmethioninePsychiatr Clin North Am. (2013)
  13. ^ Anderson OS, Sant KE, Dolinoy DC. Nutrition and epigenetics: an interplay of dietary methyl donors, one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylationJ Nutr Biochem. (2012)
  14. ^ National Diet and Nutrition Survey: British People aged 19 to 64 years.
  15. ^ The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: people aged 65 years and over.
  16. ^ Sanz-Cuesta T, et al. Oral versus intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 for the treatment of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: a pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Project OB12)BMC Public Health. (2012)
  17. a b Dali-Youcef N, Andrès E. An update on cobalamin deficiency in adultsQJM. (2009)
  18. ^ Ortega RM, et al. Vitamin status in different groups of the Spanish population: a meta-analysis of national studies performed between 1990 and 1999Public Health Nutr. (2001)
  19. ^ Henríquez P, et al. Nutritional determinants of plasma total homocysteine distribution in the Canary IslandsEur J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  20. ^ García Closas R, et al. Distribution of the serum concentration of vitamin C, folic acid and vitamin B12 in a representative sample of the adult population of Catalonia (Spain)Med Clin (Barc). (2002)
  21. a b Screening for vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in older persons.
  22. ^ Smith DL. Anemia in the elderlyAm Fam Physician. (2000)
  23. ^ Andres E, Serraj K. Optimal management of pernicious anemiaJ Blood Med. (2012)
  24. ^ Glasbrenner B, et al. Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in chronic pancreatitis: a relevant disorderKlin Wochenschr. (1991)
  25. ^ Girish BN, et al. Chronic pancreatitis is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and derangements in transsulfuration and transmethylation pathwaysPancreas. (2010)
  26. ^ Green PH, et al. Mechanisms underlying celiac disease and its neurologic manifestationsCell Mol Life Sci. (2005)
  27. a b Lambert D, et al. Crohn’s disease and vitamin B12 metabolismDig Dis Sci. (1996)
  28. ^ Vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in elderly persons.
  29. ^ Lindenbaum J, et al. Diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency: II. Relative sensitivities of serum cobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and total homocysteine concentrationsAm J Hematol. (1990)
  30. a b Matchar DB, et al. Performance of the serum cobalamin assay for diagnosis of cobalamin deficiencyAm J Med Sci. (1994)
  31. ^ Clarke R, et al. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in later lifeAge Ageing. (2004)
  32. a b Hvas AM, Nexo E. Holotranscobalamin–a first choice assay for diagnosing early vitamin B deficiencyJ Intern Med. (2005)
  33. ^ Herrmann W, et al. Functional vitamin B12 deficiency and determination of holotranscobalamin in populations at riskClin Chem Lab Med. (2003)
  34. ^ Herrmann W, et al. The usefulness of holotranscobalamin in predicting vitamin B12 status in different clinical settingsCurr Drug Metab. (2005)
  35. a b Loikas S, et al. RIA for serum holo-transcobalamin: method evaluation in the clinical laboratory and reference intervalClin Chem. (2003)
  36. a b Heil SG, et al. Screening for metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency by holotranscobalamin in patients suspected of vitamin B12 deficiency: a multicentre studyAnn Clin Biochem. (2012)
  37. ^ Refsum H, et al. Holotranscobalamin and total transcobalamin in human plasma: determination, determinants, and reference values in healthy adultsClin Chem. (2006)
  38. ^ Obeid R, Herrmann W. Holotranscobalamin in laboratory diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency compared to total cobalamin and methylmalonic acidClin Chem Lab Med. (2007)
  39. ^ Gültepe M, et al. Urine methylmalonic acid measurements for the assessment of cobalamin deficiency related to neuropsychiatric disordersClin Biochem. (2003)
  40. ^ Bolann BJ, et al. Evaluation of indicators of cobalamin deficiency defined as cobalamin-induced reduction in increased serum methylmalonic acidClin Chem. (2000)
  41. ^ Carmel R, et al. Serum cobalamin, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid concentrations in a multiethnic elderly population: ethnic and sex differences in cobalamin and metabolite abnormalitiesAm J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  42. ^ Norman EJ, Morrison JA. Screening elderly populations for cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency using the urinary methylmalonic acid assay by gas chromatography mass spectrometryAm J Med. (1993)
  43. a b c Hill MH, et al. A vitamin B-12 supplement of 500 μg/d for eight weeks does not normalize urinary methylmalonic acid or other biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in elderly people with moderately poor vitamin B-12 statusJ Nutr. (2013)
  44. ^ Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.
  45. a b Carmel R. Mild transcobalamin I (haptocorrin) deficiency and low serum cobalamin concentrationsClin Chem. (2003)
  46. ^ Mathews FS, et al. Crystal structure of human intrinsic factor: cobalamin complex at 2.6-A resolutionProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2007)
  47. ^ Allen RH. Human vitamin B12 transport proteinsProg Hematol. (1975)
  48. ^ Wuerges J, et al. Structural basis for mammalian vitamin B12 transport by transcobalaminProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2006)
  49. ^ Coppen A, Bolander-Gouaille C. Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12J Psychopharmacol. (2005)
  50. ^ Carney MW, Sheffield BF. Serum folic acid and B12 in 272 psychiatric in-patientsPsychol Med. (1978)
  51. a b Penninx BW, et al. Vitamin B(12) deficiency and depression in physically disabled older women: epidemiologic evidence from the Women’s Health and Aging StudyAm J Psychiatry. (2000)
  52. ^ Lerner V, et al. Vitamin B12 and folate serum levels in newly admitted psychiatric patientsClin Nutr. (2006)
  53. ^ Morris MS, et al. Depression and folate status in the US PopulationPsychother Psychosom. (2003)
  54. ^ Seppälä J, et al. Association between vitamin b12 levels and melancholic depressive symptoms: a Finnish population-based studyBMC Psychiatry. (2013)
  55. ^ Seppälä J, et al. Association between folate intake and melancholic depressive symptoms. A Finnish population-based studyJ Affect Disord. (2012)
  56. ^ Tiemeier H, et al. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam StudyAm J Psychiatry. (2002)
  57. ^ Hintikka J, et al. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorderBMC Psychiatry. (2003)
  58. ^ Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Fatigue and Depression after Lacunar Stroke.
  59. ^ Huijts M, et al. Effects of vitamin B12 supplementation on cognition, depression, and fatigue in patients with lacunar strokeInt Psychogeriatr. (2013)
  60. ^ Froese DS, et al. Structures of the human GTPase MMAA and vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and insight into their complex formationJ Biol Chem. (2010)
  61. ^ Takahashi-Iñiguez T, et al. Role of vitamin B12 on methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activityJ Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2012)
  62. ^ Bochyńska A, et al. The effect of vitamin B supplementation on homocysteine metabolism and clinical state of patients with chronic epilepsy treated with carbamazepine and valproic acidSeizure. (2012)
  64. ^ Nicolas JP, Guéant JL. Absorption, distribution and excretion of vitamin B12Ann Gastroenterol Hepatol (Paris). (1994)
  65. a b Lott WB, et al. Vitamin B12 and hepatitis C: molecular biology and human pathologyProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2001)
  66. ^ Bailey HD, et al. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemiaNutr Cancer. (2012)
  67. a b Hirsch S, et al. The Chilean flour folic acid fortification program reduces serum homocysteine levels and masks vitamin B-12 deficiency in elderly peopleJ Nutr. (2002)
  68. ^ Morris MS, et al. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortificationAm J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  69. a b c Ermens AA, Vlasveld LT, Lindemans J. Significance of elevated cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels in bloodClin Biochem. (2003)
  70. ^ Cobalamin Related Parameters and Disease Patterns in Patients with Increased Serum Cobalamin Levels.