NAC

NAC, N-Acetylcysteine

NAC is a supplement form of cysteine which is a amino acid the body produces itself. Its main role in the organism is to be a powerful coajuvant in antioxidant metabolism. NAC is the major Glutathione precursor, that is the most important antioxidant among cells, which helps neutralize free radicals that can damage tissues in the body.

Nutraceutic

  • Origin Synthetic
  • Source Synthetic
  • Type Amino Acid Precursor

Liver Health

The liver is responsible for many physiological processes, such as nutrient metabolism, filtration of toxins, lipid profile regulation, etc. It is an extremely important organ for the organism, since it acts in general body homeostasis. The substances that help in liver functioning aids the detoxification pathways, preventing the liver from overloading itself.
  • Liver Function

    The liver is the organ responsible for the fat metabolism in our body. Fat excess accumulation results in fatty liver (alcohol or non-alcoholic) and might even cause cirrhosis if it is not taken care of. Some nutraceutics and supplements are able to reduce liver fat stores. Detoxing compounds help detoxification pathways and the cleansing this organ as well.

Respiratory Health

The respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, windpipe and lungs, brings air into the body when you breathe. In the lungs, the oxygen from each breath is transferred to the bloodstream and sent to all of the body’s cells in order for them to function (otherwise they would just stop working and die). This is one of the most important systems in the body, not just in a physiological way, but it is also directly connected to the mind and is able to promote relaxation and focus.
  • Immune Response

    The respiratory immune response consists of multiple tiers of cellular responses that are engaged in a sequential manner in order to control infections. The more engagement those immune cells have, the less tissue damage there is.

Energy and Mood

Energy and mood are associated with several external and internal factors. Hormone release, brain chemical balance, nutrient metabolism, and several other elements alter the way the body and mind respond to daily activities. The compounds that benefit energy and mood are the ones that help in the balance of all these factors.
  • Overall Well-Being

    Wellbeing is not just the absence of disease or illness. It's a complex combination of a person's physical, mental, emotional and social health factors. Wellbeing is strongly linked to happiness and life satisfaction. There are some lifestyle changes and natural products that can be very effective in that.
  • Age Range Adults (20-59), Seniors (>60)
  • Toxicity May be toxic in high doses
  • Side effects Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Constipation
  • Warnings Bleeding Disorders, Antiocoagulant Medication

Why be Careful

People with bleeding disorders or taking blood thinning medications should not take NAC, as it may slow blood clotting.

References

  1. a b N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans.
  2. a b Witschi A, et al. The systemic availability of oral glutathioneEur J Clin Pharmacol. (1992)
  3. a b c d e Holdiness MR. Clinical pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteineClin Pharmacokinet. (1991)
  4. a b c d Wang L, Wang Z, Liu J. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on experimental chronic lead nephrotoxicity in immature female ratsHum Exp Toxicol. (2010)
  5. a b c d e Kasperczyk S, et al. The administration of N-acetylcysteine reduces oxidative stress and regulates glutathione metabolism in the blood cells of workers exposed to leadClin Toxicol (Phila). (2013)
  6. ^ Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A. Toxicity of lead: A review with recent updatesInterdiscip Toxicol. (2012)
  7. a b Nehru B, Kanwar SS. Modulation by N-acetylcysteine of lead-induced alterations in rat brain: reduced glutathione levels and morphologyToxicol Mech Methods. (2007)
  8. a b Ercal N, et al. In vivo indices of oxidative stress in lead-exposed C57BL/6 mice are reduced by treatment with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid or N-acetylcysteineFree Radic Biol Med. (1996)
  9. ^ Kasperczyk A, et al. The effect of lead-induced oxidative stress on blood viscosity and rheological properties of erythrocytes in lead exposed humansClin Hemorheol Microcirc. (2013)
  10. ^ Jung T, Bader N, Grune T. Lipofuscin: formation, distribution, and metabolic consequencesAnn N Y Acad Sci. (2007)
  11. ^ Farr SA, et al. The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 miceJ Neurochem. (2003)
  12. ^ Neuwelt EA, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of aortic administration of N-acetylcysteine as a chemoprotectant against bone marrow toxicity after intracarotid administration of alkylators, with or without glutathione depletion in a rat modelCancer Res. (2001)
  13. a b c d e f Dean O, Giorlando F, Berk M. N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of actionJ Psychiatry Neurosci. (2011)
  14. ^ Sjödin K, et al. Metabolism of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Some structural requirements for the deacetylation and consequences for the oral bioavailabilityBiochem Pharmacol. (1989)
  15. a b Baker DA, et al. The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamateJ Neurosci. (2002)
  16. a b Moran MM, et al. Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seekingJ Neurosci. (2005)
  17. ^ Kau KS, et al. Blunted cystine-glutamate antiporter function in the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine-induced drug seekingNeuroscience. (2008)
  18. ^ Madayag A, et al. Repeated N-acetylcysteine administration alters plasticity-dependent effects of cocaineJ Neurosci. (2007)
  19. ^ Xi ZX, et al. Modulation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling by chronic cocaineJ Pharmacol Exp Ther. (2002)
  20. a b c d Schmaal L, et al. N-acetylcysteine normalizes glutamate levels in cocaine-dependent patients: a randomized crossover magnetic resonance spectroscopy studyNeuropsychopharmacology. (2012)
  21. a b Varga V, et al. Glutathione is an endogenous ligand of rat brain N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptorsNeurochem Res. (1997)
  22. ^ Ogita K, et al. Glutathione-induced inhibition of Na+-independent and -dependent bindings of L-{3H}glutamate in rat brainLife Sci. (1986)
  23. ^ Gere-Pászti E, Jakus J. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on amphetamine-mediated dopamine release in rat brain striatal slices by ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographyBiomed Chromatogr. (2009)
  24. ^ Janáky R, et al. Modulation of {3H}dopamine release by glutathione in mouse striatal slicesNeurochem Res. (2007)
  25. ^ Hashimoto K, et al. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the reduction of brain dopamine transporters in monkey treated with methamphetamineAnn N Y Acad Sci. (2004)
  26. ^ Berk M, et al. Nail-biting stuff? The effect of N-acetyl cysteine on nail-bitingCNS Spectr. (2009)
  27. ^ Grant JE, et al. Skin picking disorderAm J Psychiatry. (2012)
  28. a b Ghanizadeh A, Moghimi-Sarani E. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of N-Acetylcysteine added to risperidone for treating autistic disordersBMC Psychiatry. (2013)
  29. a b c Hardan AY, et al. A randomized controlled pilot trial of oral N-acetylcysteine in children with autismBiol Psychiatry. (2012)
  30. ^ Koob GF, Volkow ND. Neurocircuitry of addictionNeuropsychopharmacology. (2010)
  31. ^ Huey ED, et al. A psychological and neuroanatomical model of obsessive-compulsive disorderJ Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. (2008)
  32. a b Chakraborty S, et al. Correlation between lipid peroxidation-induced TBARS level and disease severity in obsessive-compulsive disorderProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2009)
  33. ^ Kuloglu M, et al. Antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde levels in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorderNeuropsychobiology. (2002)
  34. ^ Ersan S, et al. Examination of free radical metabolism and antioxidant defence system elements in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorderProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2006)
  35. a b Ozdemir E, et al. Serum selenium and plasma malondialdehyde levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorderProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2009)
  36. a b Egashira N, et al. N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits marble-burying behavior in miceJ Pharmacol Sci. (2012)
  37. ^ Bloch MH, et al. Meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship of SSRI in obsessive-compulsive disorderMol Psychiatry. (2010)
  38. ^ Lafleur DL, et al. N-acetylcysteine augmentation in serotonin reuptake inhibitor refractory obsessive-compulsive disorderPsychopharmacology (Berl). (2006)
  39. ^ Afshar H, et al. N-acetylcysteine add-on treatment in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Clin Psychopharmacol. (2012)
  40. ^ Dell’Osso B, et al. Epidemiologic and clinical updates on impulse control disorders: a critical reviewEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. (2006)
  41. ^ Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Potenza MN. Addicted to hair pulling? How an alternate model of trichotillomania may improve treatment outcomeHarv Rev Psychiatry. (2007)
  42. ^ Odlaug BL, Grant JE. N-acetyl cysteine in the treatment of grooming disordersJ Clin Psychopharmacol. (2007)
  43. ^ Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Kim SW. N-acetylcysteine, a glutamate modulator, in the treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyArch Gen Psychiatry. (2009)
  44. ^ Heishman SJ, Singleton EG. Assessment of cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving QuestionnaireMethods Mol Med. (2006)
  45. a b Gray KM, et al. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in young marijuana users: an open-label pilot studyAm J Addict. (2010)
  46. ^ Kampman KM, et al. Reliability and validity of the Cocaine Selective Severity AssessmentAddict Behav. (1998)
  47. ^ LaRowe SD, et al. Safety and tolerability of N-acetylcysteine in cocaine-dependent individualsAm J Addict. (2006)
  48. a b Knackstedt LA, et al. The role of cystine-glutamate exchange in nicotine dependence in rats and humansBiol Psychiatry. (2009)
  49. ^ Cobley JN, et al. N-Acetylcysteine Attenuates Fatigue Following Repeated-Bouts of Intermittent Exercise: Practical Implications for Tournament SituationsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2011)
  50. a b Cobley JN, et al. N-Acetylcysteine’s attenuation of fatigue after repeated bouts of intermittent exercise: practical implications for tournament situationsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2011)
  51. ^ Dringen R, Hirrlinger J. Glutathione pathways in the brainBiol Chem. (2003)
  52. ^ Giordano G, White CC, Costa LG. Assessment of glutathione homeostasisMethods Mol Biol. (2011)
  53. a b Benrahmoune M, Thérond P, Abedinzadeh Z. The reaction of superoxide radical with N-acetylcysteineFree Radic Biol Med. (2000)
  54. ^ Bielski BH, Shiue GG. Reaction rates of superoxide radicals with the essential amino acidsCiba Found Symp. (1978)
  55. ^ Winterbourn CC, Metodiewa D. The reaction of superoxide with reduced glutathioneArch Biochem Biophys. (1994)
  56. ^ Cardey B, Foley S, Enescu M. Mechanism of thiol oxidation by the superoxide radicalJ Phys Chem A. (2007)
  57. ^ Moldéus P, Cotgreave IA, Berggren M. Lung protection by a thiol-containing antioxidant: N-acetylcysteineRespiration. (1986)
  58. a b Aruoma OI, et al. The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine: its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acidFree Radic Biol Med. (1989)
  59. ^ Heinecke JW. Pathways for oxidation of low density lipoprotein by myeloperoxidase: tyrosyl radical, reactive aldehydes, hypochlorous acid and molecular chlorineBiofactors. (1997)
  60. a b c van Overveld FJ, et al. New developments in the treatment of COPD: comparing the effects of inhaled corticosteroids and N-acetylcysteineJ Physiol Pharmacol. (2005)
  61. ^ Karbasi A, et al. Effect of oral N-acetyl cysteine on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsiaMinerva Gastroenterol Dietol. (2013)
  62. ^ Scalley RD, Conner CS. Acetaminophen poisoning: a case report of the use of acetylcysteineAm J Hosp Pharm. (1978)
  63. a b c d e Tsikas D1, et al. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibits renal nitrite and nitrate reabsorption in healthy subjects and in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: risk of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability loss by NACInt J Cardiol. (2014)
  64. ^ Chai YC1, et al. Identification of an abundant S-thiolated rat liver protein as carbonic anhydrase III; characterization of S-thiolation and dethiolation reactionsArch Biochem Biophys. (1991)
  65. ^ Carbonic anhydrase VII is S-glutathionylated without loss of catalytic activity and affinity for sulfonamide inhibitors.
  66. a b Sütö T1, et al. Acute changes in urinary excretion of nitrite + nitrate do not necessarily predict renal vascular NO productionKidney Int. (1995)
  67. a b Chobanyan-Jürgens K1, et al. Renal carbonic anhydrases are involved in the reabsorption of endogenous nitriteNitric Oxide. (2012)
  68. ^ Aamand R1, et al. Generation of nitric oxide from nitrite by carbonic anhydrase: a possible link between metabolic activity and vasodilationAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. (2009)
  69. ^ Torring MS1, et al. The vasodilating effect of acetazolamide and dorzolamide involves mechanisms other than carbonic anhydrase inhibitionInvest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. (2009)
  70. a b c d Palmer LA1, et al. S-nitrosothiols signal hypoxia-mimetic vascular pathologyJ Clin Invest. (2007)
  71. ^ Hildebrandt W1, et al. Effect of N-acetyl-cysteine on the hypoxic ventilatory response and erythropoietin production: linkage between plasma thiol redox state and O(2) chemosensitivityBlood. (2002)
  72. ^ McMahon TJ1, et al. A nitric oxide processing defect of red blood cells created by hypoxia: deficiency of S-nitrosohemoglobin in pulmonary hypertensionProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2005)
  73. ^ Gaston B1, et al. S-nitrosothiol signaling in respiratory biologyAm J Respir Crit Care Med. (2006)
  74. ^ Lonergan KM1, et al. Regulation of hypoxia-inducible mRNAs by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein requires binding to complexes containing elongins B/C and Cul2Mol Cell Biol. (1998)
  75. ^ Ohh M1, et al. Ubiquitination of hypoxia-inducible factor requires direct binding to the beta-domain of the von Hippel-Lindau proteinNat Cell Biol. (2000)
  76. a b van Overveld FJ, Vermeire PA, De Backer WA. Induced sputum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contains adhesion-promoting, therapy-sensitive factorsInflamm Res. (2000)
  77. a b Bowe WP, Patel N, Logan AC. Acne vulgaris: the role of oxidative stress and the potential therapeutic value of local and systemic antioxidantsJ Drugs Dermatol. (2012)
  78. ^ Sahib A, et al. Effects of Oral Antioxidants on Lesion Counts Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Patients with Papulopustular AcneJ Clin Exp Dermatol Res. (2012)
  79. ^ Celli BR, MacNee W; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paperEur Respir J. (2004)
  80. ^ Vernooy JH, et al. Local and systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors are increased in sputumAm J Respir Crit Care Med. (2002)
  81. ^ Sadowska AM, et al. The interrelationship between markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: modulation by inhaled steroids and antioxidantRespir Med. (2005)
  82. ^ Sadowska AM, Manuel-Y-Keenoy B, De Backer WA. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy of NAC in the treatment of COPD: discordant in vitro and in vivo dose-effects: a reviewPulm Pharmacol Ther. (2007)
  83. a b De Benedetto F, et al. Long-term oral n-acetylcysteine reduces exhaled hydrogen peroxide in stable COPDPulm Pharmacol Ther. (2005)
  84. ^ Kostikas K, et al. Oxidative stress in expired breath condensate of patients with COPDChest. (2003)
  85. ^ De Benedetto F, et al. Validation of a new technique to assess exhaled hydrogen peroxide: results from normals and COPD patientsMonaldi Arch Chest Dis. (2000)
  86. a b Decramer M, et al. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Bronchitis Randomized on NAC Cost-Utility Study, BRONCUS): a randomised placebo-controlled trialLancet. (2005)
  87. ^ Randomised, controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine for treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  88. ^ Melnyk S, et al. Metabolic imbalance associated with methylation dysregulation and oxidative damage in children with autismJ Autism Dev Disord. (2012)
  89. ^ Parellada M, et al. Plasma antioxidant capacity is reduced in Asperger syndromeJ Psychiatr Res. (2012)
  90. ^ Essa MM, et al. Increased markers of oxidative stress in autistic children of the Sultanate of OmanBiol Trace Elem Res. (2012)
  91. ^ Ming X, et al. Increased excretion of a lipid peroxidation biomarker in autismProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2005)
  92. ^ Chauhan A, Audhya T, Chauhan V. Brain region-specific glutathione redox imbalance in autismNeurochem Res. (2012)
  93. ^ Bowers K, et al. Glutathione pathway gene variation and risk of autism spectrum disordersJ Neurodev Disord. (2011)
  94. ^ Al-Yafee YA, et al. Novel metabolic biomarkers related to sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways in autistic patients of Saudi ArabiaBMC Neurol. (2011)
  95. ^ Ghanizadeh A. Could fever and neuroinflammation play a role in the neurobiology of autism? A subject worthy of more researchInt J Hyperthermia. (2011)
  96. ^ Harrison C. Neurodevelopmental disorders: Glutamate blockers show benefit in models of autism spectrum disordersNat Rev Drug Discov. (2012)
  97. ^ Niederhofer H. Glutamate antagonists seem to be slightly effective in psychopharmacologic treatment of autismJ Clin Psychopharmacol. (2007)
  98. ^ Ghanizadeh A, Derakhshan N. N-acetylcysteine for treatment of autism, a case reportJ Res Med Sci. (2012)
  99. ^ Aman MG, et al. The aberrant behavior checklist: a behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effectsAm J Ment Defic. (1985)
  100. ^ Walters MT, et al. A double-blind, cross-over, study of oral N-acetylcysteine in Sjögren’s syndromeScand J Rheumatol Suppl. (1986)
  101. ^ Ekins BR, et al. The effect of activated charcoal on N-acetylcysteine absorption in normal subjectsAm J Emerg Med. (1987)
  102. ^ Renzi FP, et al. Concomitant use of activated charcoal and N-acetylcysteineAnn Emerg Med. (1985)
  103. a b c Wang AL1, et al. A dual effect of N-acetylcysteine on acute ethanol-induced liver damage in miceHepatol Res. (2006)
  104. ^ Ozaras R1, et al. N-acetylcysteine attenuates alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the ratWorld J Gastroenterol. (2003)
  105. a b c Caro AA1, et al. N-acetylcysteine inhibits the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in livers from rats fed ethanol chronicallyAlcohol Clin Exp Res. (2014)
  106. ^ Aydin S1, et al. N-acetylcysteine reduced the effect of ethanol on antioxidant system in rat plasma and brain tissueTohoku J Exp Med. (2002)
  107. ^ Ferreira Seiva FR1, et al. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on alcohol abstinence and alcohol-induced adverse effects in ratsAlcohol. (2009)