1. ^ Babayan V. Medium chain length fatty acid esters and their medical and nutritional applicationsJ Am Oil Chem Soc. (1981)
  2. ^ Sigalet DL, Martin G. Lymphatic absorption of glucose and fatty acids as determined by direct measurementJ Pediatr Surg. (1999)
  3. ^ Sigalet DL, Winkelaar GB, Smith LJ. Determination of the route of medium-chain and long-chain fatty acid absorption by direct measurement in the ratJPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. (1997)
  4. ^ USDA Food Composition Database Nutrient list for C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0.
  5. a b c Bach AC, Babayan VK. Medium-chain triglycerides: an updateAm J Clin Nutr. (1982)
  6. ^ Ghosh S, Bhattacharyya DK. Medium-chain fatty acid-rich glycerides by chemical and lipase-catalyzed polyester-monoester interchange reactionJ Amer Oil Chem Soc. (1997)
  7. ^ Mu H, Porsgaard T. The metabolism of structured triacylglycerolsProg Lipid Res. (2005)
  8. ^ Mansbach CM 2nd, Gorelick F. Development and physiological regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. II. Dietary lipid absorption, complex lipid synthesis, and the intracellular packaging and secretion of chylomicronsAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. (2007)
  9. ^ McLaughlin J, et al. Fatty acid chain length determines cholecystokinin secretion and effect on human gastric motilityGastroenterology. (1999)
  10. ^ Symersky T, et al. The effect of equicaloric medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on pancreas enzyme secretionClin Physiol Funct Imaging. (2002)
  11. a b You YQ, et al. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides, long-chain triglycerides, or 2-monododecanoin on fatty acid composition in the portal vein, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation in ratsJPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. (2008)
  12. ^ Iber FL. Relative rates of metabolism MCT, LCT and ethanol in manZ Ernahrungswiss Suppl. (1974)
  13. ^ Borel P, et al. Chylomicron beta-carotene and retinyl palmitate responses are dramatically diminished when men ingest beta-carotene with medium-chain rather than long-chain triglyceridesJ Nutr. (1998)
  14. a b Swift LL, et al. Medium-chain fatty acids: evidence for incorporation into chylomicron triglycerides in humansAm J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  15. ^ Rubio-Gozalbo ME, et al. Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency, clinical, biochemical and genetic aspectsMol Aspects Med. (2004)
  16. ^ Bach A, Phan T, Metais P. Effect of the fatty acid composition of ingested fats on rat liver intermediary metabolismHorm Metab Res. (1976)
  17. ^ Bach A. Oxaloacetate deficiency in MCT-induced ketogenesisArch Int Physiol Biochim. (1978)
  18. ^ McGarry JD, Foster DW. Regulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketone body productionAnnu Rev Biochem. (1980)
  19. ^ Yeh YY, Zee P. Relation of ketosis to metabolic changes induced by acute medium-chain triglyceride feeding in ratsJ Nutr. (1976)
  20. ^ Bach A, et al. Ketogenic response to medium-chain triglyceride load in the ratJ Nutr. (1977)
  21. ^ McGarry JD, Foster DW. The regulation of ketogenesis from octanoic acid. The role of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid synthesisJ Biol Chem. (1971)
  22. a b Vandenberghe C, et al. Tricaprylin alone increases plasma ketone response more than coconut oil or other medium chain triglycerides: an acute crossover study in healthy adultsCurr Dev Nutr. (2017)
  23. ^ Adkison KD, Shen DD. Uptake of valproic acid into rat brain is mediated by a medium-chain fatty acid transporterJ Pharmacol Exp Ther. (1996)
  24. a b Chang P, et al. Seizure control by decanoic acid through direct AMPA receptor inhibitionBrain. (2016)
  25. a b Van Wymelbeke V, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fantino M. Substrate oxidation and control of food intake in men after a fat-substitute meal compared with meals supplemented with an isoenergetic load of carbohydrate, long-chain triacylglycerols, or medium-chain triacylglycerolsAm J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  26. a b Rolls BJ, et al. Food intake in dieters and nondieters after a liquid meal containing medium-chain triglyceridesAm J Clin Nutr. (1988)
  27. ^ St-Onge MP, et al. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight menEur J Clin Nutr. (2014)
  28. a b c Van Wymelbeke V, et al. Influence of medium-chain and long-chain triacylglycerols on the control of food intake in menAm J Clin Nutr. (1998)
  29. ^ Stubbs RJ, Harbron CG. Covert manipulation of the ratio of medium- to long-chain triglycerides in isoenergetically dense diets: effect on food intake in ad libitum feeding menInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1996)
  30. a b Krotkiewski M. Value of VLCD supplementation with medium chain triglyceridesInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2001)
  31. a b c d Han JR, et al. Effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjectsMetabolism. (2007)
  32. a b Martin K, et al. Ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for epilepsyCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2016)
  33. ^ Lima PA, Sampaio LP, Damasceno NR. Neurobiochemical mechanisms of a ketogenic diet in refractory epilepsyClinics (Sao Paulo). (2014)
  34. ^ Masino SA, Rho JM. Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet Action.
  35. ^ Groleau V, et al. Long-term impact of the ketogenic diet on growth and resting energy expenditure in children with intractable epilepsyDev Med Child Neurol. (2014)
  36. ^ Bergqvist AG, et al. Progressive bone mineral content loss in children with intractable epilepsy treated with the ketogenic dietAm J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  37. a b Huttenlocher PR, Wilbourn AJ, Signore JM. Medium-chain triglycerides as a therapy for intractable childhood epilepsyNeurology. (1971)
  38. ^ Huttenlocher PR. Ketonemia and seizures: metabolic and anticonvulsant effects of two ketogenic diets in childhood epilepsyPediatr Res. (1976)
  39. ^ Trauner DA. Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet in intractable seizure disordersNeurology. (1985)
  40. ^ Sills MA, et al. The medium chain triglyceride diet and intractable epilepsyArch Dis Child. (1986)
  41. a b Schwartz RH, et al. Ketogenic diets in the treatment of epilepsy: short-term clinical effectsDev Med Child Neurol. (1989)
  42. a b Schwartz RM, Boyes S, Aynsley-Green A. Metabolic effects of three ketogenic diets in the treatment of severe epilepsyDev Med Child Neurol. (1989)
  43. ^ Liu YM. Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic therapyEpilepsia. (2008)
  44. ^ Liu YM, Wang HS. Medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet, an effective treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy and a comparison with other ketogenic dietsBiomed J. (2013)
  45. ^ Neal EG, et al. Growth of children on classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic dietsPediatrics. (2008)
  46. a b c d Neal EG, et al. A randomized trial of classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsyEpilepsia. (2009)
  47. a b Azzam R, Azar NJ. Marked Seizure Reduction after MCT SupplementationCase Rep Neurol Med. (2013)
  48. a b c Reger MA, et al. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adultsNeurobiol Aging. (2004)
  49. a b c Henderson ST, et al. Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trialNutr Metab (Lond). (2009)
  50. a b Rebello CJ, et al. Pilot feasibility and safety study examining the effect of medium chain triglyceride supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trialBBA Clin. (2015)
  51. ^ Cunnane SC, et al. Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s DiseaseFront Mol Neurosci. (2016)
  52. a b Tsuji H, et al. Dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols suppress accumulation of body fat in a double-blind, controlled trial in healthy men and womenJ Nutr. (2001)
  53. ^ Tsai YH, et al. Mechanisms mediating lipoprotein responses to diets with medium-chain triglyceride and lauric acidLipids. (1999)
  54. a b c d Temme EH, Mensink RP, Hornstra G. Effects of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), myristic acid, and oleic acid on serum lipoproteins in healthy subjectsJ Lipid Res. (1997)
  55. a b Swift LL, et al. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins during 6 d of maintenance feeding with long-chain, medium-chain, and mixed-chain triglyceridesAm J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  56. a b Hill JO, et al. Changes in blood lipids during six days of overfeeding with medium or long chain triglyceridesJ Lipid Res. (1990)
  57. a b HASHIM SA, ARTEAGA A, VAN ITALLIE TB. Effect of a saturated medium-chain triglyceride on serum-lipids in manLancet. (1960)
  58. a b St-Onge MP, et al. Medium chain triglyceride oil consumption as part of a weight loss diet does not lead to an adverse metabolic profile when compared to olive oilJ Am Coll Nutr. (2008)
  59. ^ Tremblay AJ, et al. Dietary medium-chain triglyceride supplementation has no effect on apolipoprotein B-48 and apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics in insulin-resistant menAm J Clin Nutr. (2014)
  60. ^ van Schalkwijk DB, et al. Dietary medium chain fatty acid supplementation leads to reduced VLDL lipolysis and uptake rates in comparison to linoleic acid supplementationPLoS One. (2014)
  61. ^ Turkenkopf IJ, Maggio CA, Greenwood MR. Effect of high fat weanling diets containing either medium-chain triglycerides or long-chain triglycerides on the development of obesity in the Zucker ratJ Nutr. (1982)
  62. a b c Kasai M, et al. Effect of dietary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) on accumulation of body fat in healthy humansAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  63. ^ Xue C, et al. Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjectsEur J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  64. ^ Zhang YH, et al. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid triacylglycerol reduce body fat and serum triglyceride in overweight and hypertriglyceridemic subjectsZhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. (2009)
  65. ^ Liu Y, et al. A good response to oil with medium- and long-chain fatty acids in body fat and blood lipid profiles of male hypertriglyceridemic subjectsAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  66. ^ Barrett-Connor E. Sex differences in coronary heart disease. Why are women so superior? The 1995 Ancel Keys LectureCirculation. (1997)
  67. ^ Zhang Y, et al. Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols reduce body fat and blood triacylglycerols in hypertriacylglycerolemic, overweight but not obese, Chinese individualsLipids. (2010)
  68. ^ Asakura L, et al. Dietary medium-chain triacylglycerol prevents the postprandial rise of plasma triacylglycerols but induces hypercholesterolemia in primary hypertriglyceridemic subjectsAm J Clin Nutr. (2000)
  69. ^ Cater NB, Heller HJ, Denke MA. Comparison of the effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols, palm oil, and high oleic acid sunflower oil on plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in humansAm J Clin Nutr. (1997)
  70. ^ UZAWA H, et al. HYPERGLYCERIDEMIA RESULTING FROM INTAKE OF MEDIUM CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDESAm J Clin Nutr. (1964)
  71. a b Eckel RH, et al. Dietary substitution of medium-chain triglycerides improves insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in NIDDM subjectsDiabetes. (1992)
  72. ^ Airhart S, et al. A Diet Rich in Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Improves Systolic Function and Alters the Lipidomic Profile in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot StudyJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2016)
  73. ^ Hayes KC. Medium-chain triacylglycerols may not raise cholesterolAm J Clin Nutr. (2000)
  74. ^ Pi-Sunyer FX, Hashim SA, Van Itallie TB. Insulin and ketone responses to ingestion of medium and long-chain triglycerides in manDiabetes. (1969)
  75. ^ Tamir I, et al. Effects of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride on serum lipid and insulin levels in manJ Lipid Res. (1968)
  76. ^ Yost TJ, et al. Dietary substitution of medium chain triglycerides in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in an ambulatory setting: impact on glycemic control and insulin-mediated glucose metabolismJ Am Coll Nutr. (1994)
  77. ^ Souza PF, Williamson DH. Effects of feeding medium-chain triacylglycerols on maternal lipid metabolism and pup growth in lactating ratsBr J Nutr. (1993)
  78. ^ Lieber CS, et al. Difference in hepatic metabolism of long- and medium-chain fatty acids: the role of fatty acid chain length in the production of the alcoholic fatty liverJ Clin Invest. (1967)
  79. ^ Johnson RC, et al. Medium-chain-triglyceride lipid emulsion: metabolism and tissue distributionAm J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  80. ^ Watkins JB, et al. Diagnosis and differentiation of fat malabsorption in children using 13C-labeled lipids: trioctanoin, triolein, and palmitic acid breath testsGastroenterology. (1982)
  81. ^ Metges CC, Wolfram G. Medium- and long-chain triglycerides labeled with 13C: a comparison of oxidation after oral or parenteral administration in humansJ Nutr. (1991)
  82. ^ Schoeller DA, et al. 13C abundances of nutrients and the effect of variations in 13C isotopic abundances of test meals formulated for 13CO2 breath testsAm J Clin Nutr. (1980)
  83. a b c Papamandjaris AA, et al. Endogenous fat oxidation during medium chain versus long chain triglyceride feeding in healthy womenInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2000)
  84. a b Binnert C, et al. Influence of human obesity on the metabolic fate of dietary long- and medium-chain triacylglycerolsAm J Clin Nutr. (1998)
  85. ^ Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1A Deficiency.
  86. ^ Geliebter A, et al. Overfeeding with medium-chain triglyceride diet results in diminished deposition of fatAm J Clin Nutr. (1983)
  87. ^ Dulloo AG, et al. Differential effects of high-fat diets varying in fatty acid composition on the efficiency of lean and fat tissue deposition during weight recovery after low food intakeMetabolism. (1995)
  88. ^ Crozier G, et al. Metabolic effects induced by long-term feeding of medium-chain triglycerides in the ratMetabolism. (1987)
  89. ^ Lavau MM, Hashim SA. Effect of medium chain triglyceride on lipogenesis and body fat in the ratJ Nutr. (1978)
  90. ^ Papamandjaris AA, White MD, Jones PJ. Components of total energy expenditure in healthy young women are not affected after 14 days of feeding with medium-versus long-chain triglyceridesObes Res. (1999)
  91. ^ Roynette CE, et al. Structured medium and long chain triglycerides show short-term increases in fat oxidation, but no changes in adiposity in menNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2008)
  92. ^ Assunção ML, et al. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesityLipids. (2009)
  93. ^ Clegg ME. Medium-chain triglycerides are advantageous in promoting weight loss although not beneficial to exercise performanceInt J Food Sci Nutr. (2010)
  94. ^ Does medium chain triglyceride play an ergogenic role in endurance exercise performance?.
  95. ^ Hawley JA, Brouns F, Jeukendrup A. Strategies to enhance fat utilisation during exerciseSports Med. (1998)
  96. ^ Horowitz JF, et al. Preexercise medium-chain triglyceride ingestion does not alter muscle glycogen use during exerciseJ Appl Physiol. (2000)
  97. ^ Misell LM, et al. Chronic medium-chain triacylglycerol consumption and endurance performance in trained runnersJ Sports Med Phys Fitness. (2001)
  98. ^ Goedecke JH, et al. The effects of medium-chain triacylglycerol and carbohydrate ingestion on ultra-endurance exercise performanceInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2005)
  99. ^ Angus DJ, et al. Effect of carbohydrate or carbohydrate plus medium-chain triglyceride ingestion on cycling time trial performanceJ Appl Physiol. (2000)
  100. ^ Kehayoglou K, et al. The effect of medium-chain triglyceride on 47 calcium absorption in patients with primary biliary cirrhosisGut. (1973)
  101. ^ Harrison JE, et al. Effect of medium chain triglyceride on fecal calcium losses in pancreatic insufficiencyClin Biochem. (1973)
  102. ^ Tandon RK, Rodgers JB Jr, Balint JA. The effects of medium-chain triglycerides in the short bowel syndrome. Increased glucose and water transportAm J Dig Dis. (1972)
  103. a b c Traul KA, et al. Review of the toxicologic properties of medium-chain triglyceridesFood Chem Toxicol. (2000)
  104. ^ Nair AB, Jacob S. A simple practice guide for dose conversion between animals and humanJ Basic Clin Pharm. (2016)
  105. White MD, Papamandjaris AA, Jones PJ. Enhanced postprandial energy expenditure with medium-chain fatty acid feeding is attenuated after 14 d in premenopausal womenAm J Clin Nutr. (1999)