1. ^ Antioxidants do not prevent postexercise peroxidation and may delay muscle recovery.
  2. ^ Improving neuropathy scores in type 2 diabetic patients using micronutrients supplementation.
  3. ^ Effects of multivitamin/mineral supplementation on trace element levels in serum and follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF).
  4. ^ The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
  5. ^ Comparison of the effects of vitamins and/or mineral supplementation on glomerular and tubular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
  6. ^ The impact of vitamin and/or mineral supplementation on lipid profiles in type 2 diabetes.
  7. a b The impact of vitamins and/or mineral supplementation on blood pressure in type 2 diabetes.
  8. ^ N-acetylcysteine and magnesium improve biochemical abnormalities associated with myocardial ischaemic reperfusion in South Indian patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a comparative analysis.
  9. ^ Supplementation with alkaline minerals reduces symptoms in patients with chronic low back pain.
  10. ^ Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium.
  11. ^ Corlett JL, et al. Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, CaliforniaInt J Food Sci Nutr. (2002)
  12. ^ Zeng X, et al. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushroomsFood Sci Technol Int. (2012)
  13. ^ Bhat R, Sridhar KR, Seena S. Nutritional quality evaluation of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens) exposed to gamma irradiationInt J Food Sci Nutr. (2008)
  14. ^ Oboh G, Ekperigin MM. Nutritional evaluation of some Nigerian wild seedsNahrung. (2004)
  15. ^ Cemek M, et al. Serum and liver tissue bio-element levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effects of royal jellyJ Med Food. (2012)
  16. ^ Szopa A, Ekiert H. In vitro cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine)–a potential biotechnological rich source of therapeutically important phenolic acidsAppl Biochem Biotechnol. (2012)
  17. a b DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride.
  18. a b Jacka FN, et al. Association between magnesium intake and depression and anxiety in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland Health StudyAust N Z J Psychiatry. (2009)
  19. ^ What we eat in America: NHANES 2005-2006.
  20. ^ Garfinkel L, Garfinkel D. Magnesium regulation of the glycolytic pathway and the enzymes involvedMagnesium. (1985)
  21. a b c Fox C, Ramsoomair D, Carter C. Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significanceSouth Med J. (2001)
  22. ^ Farhanghi MA, Mahboob S, Ostadrahimi A. Obesity induced magnesium deficiency can be treated by vitamin D supplementationJ Pak Med Assoc. (2009)
  23. a b c d de Lordes Lima M, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetesDiabetes Care. (1998)
  24. ^ Reinhart RA, et al. Intracellular magnesium of mononuclear cells from venous blood of clinically healthy subjectsClin Chim Acta. (1987)
  25. ^ Magnesium Metabolism: A Review.
  26. ^ Wills MR, Sunderman FW, Savory J. Methods for the estimation of serum magnesium in clinical laboratoriesMagnesium. (1986)
  27. ^ Magnesium Metabolism and its Disorders.
  28. ^ Shen L, Turner JR. Role of epithelial cells in initiation and propagation of intestinal inflammation. Eliminating the static: tight junction dynamics exposedAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. (2006)
  29. a b c d e f g Quamme GA. Recent developments in intestinal magnesium absorptionCurr Opin Gastroenterol. (2008)
  30. a b c van de Graaf SF, Bindels RJ, Hoenderop JG. Physiology of epithelial Ca2+ and Mg2+ transportRev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. (2007)
  31. a b c d Schlingmann KP, et al. TRPM6 and TRPM7–Gatekeepers of human magnesium metabolismBiochim Biophys Acta. (2007)
  32. ^ Bates-Withers C, Sah R, Clapham DE. TRPM7, the Mg(2+) inhibited channel and kinaseAdv Exp Med Biol. (2011)
  33. a b Groenestege WM, et al. The epithelial Mg2+ channel transient receptor potential melastatin 6 is regulated by dietary Mg2+ content and estrogensJ Am Soc Nephrol. (2006)
  34. ^ Siener R, Hesse A. Influence of a mixed and a vegetarian diet on urinary magnesium excretion and concentrationBr J Nutr. (1995)
  35. ^ Influence of a mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallization.
  36. ^ GRAHAM LA, CAESAR JJ, BURGEN AS. Gastrointestinal absorption and excretion of Mg 28 in manMetabolism. (1960)
  37. a b c Holloway L, et al. Effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal womenBr J Nutr. (2007)
  38. ^ Bohn T, et al. Phytic acid added to white-wheat bread inhibits fractional apparent magnesium absorption in humansAm J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  39. ^ Bohn T, et al. Fractional magnesium absorption is significantly lower in human subjects from a meal served with an oxalate-rich vegetable, spinach, as compared with a meal served with kale, a vegetable with a low oxalate contentBr J Nutr. (2004)
  40. a b Schwartz R, Spencer H, Welsh JJ. Magnesium absorption in human subjects from leafy vegetables, intrinsically labeled with stable 26MgAm J Clin Nutr. (1984)
  41. ^ Schwartz R, et al. Magnesium absorption from leafy vegetables intrinsically labeled with the stable isotope 26MgJ Nutr. (1980)
  42. ^ Second messenger role for Mg revealed by human T-cell immunodeficiency.
  43. ^ Wolf FI, Trapani V. MagT1: a highly specific magnesium channel with important roles beyond cellular magnesium homeostasisMagnes Res. (2011)
  44. ^ Schweigel M, et al. Expression and functional activity of the Na/Mg exchanger, TRPM7 and MagT1 are changed to regulate Mg homeostasis and transport in rumen epithelial cellsMagnes Res. (2008)
  45. a b c Chacko SA, et al. Magnesium supplementation, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and global genomic and proteomic profiling: a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial in overweight individualsAm J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  46. ^ Voltage-dependent block by intracellular Mg2+ of N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated channels.
  47. ^ Nowak L, et al. Magnesium gates glutamate-activated channels in mouse central neuronesNature. (1984)
  48. ^ Iseri LT, French JH. Magnesium: nature’s physiologic calcium blockerAm Heart J. (1984)
  49. ^ Konrad M, Schlingmann KP, Gudermann T. Insights into the molecular nature of magnesium homeostasisAm J Physiol Renal Physiol. (2004)
  50. ^ Alexander RT, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. Molecular determinants of magnesium homeostasis: insights from human diseaseJ Am Soc Nephrol. (2008)
  51. ^ Furukawa Y, Kasai N, Torimitsu K. Effect of Mg2+ on neural activity of rat cortical and hippocampal neurons in vitroMagnes Res. (2009)
  52. a b c Mark LP, et al. Pictorial review of glutamate excitotoxicity: fundamental concepts for neuroimagingAJNR Am J Neuroradiol. (2001)
  53. ^ McMenimen KA, et al. Probing the Mg2+ blockade site of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor with unnatural amino acid mutagenesisACS Chem Biol. (2006)
  54. a b c d e f g h i j k l Slutsky I, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesiumNeuron. (2010)
  55. a b Shimosawa T, et al. Magnesium inhibits norepinephrine release by blocking N-type calcium channels at peripheral sympathetic nerve endingsHypertension. (2004)
  56. ^ Decollogne S, et al. NMDA receptor complex blockade by oral administration of magnesium: comparison with MK-801Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (1997)
  57. ^ Hollmann MW, et al. Modulation of NMDA receptor function by ketamine and magnesium. Part II: interactions with volatile anestheticsAnesth Analg. (2001)
  58. a b Somjen GG. Ion regulation in the brain: implications for pathophysiologyNeuroscientist. (2002)
  59. ^ The role of the cat choroid plexus in regulating cerebrospinal fluid magnesium.
  60. ^ Allsop TF. Transfer of magnesium across the perfused choroid plexus of sheepAust J Biol Sci. (1986)
  61. ^ Langley WF, Mann D. Central nervous system magnesium deficiencyArch Intern Med. (1991)
  62. ^ Arundine M, Tymianski M. Molecular mechanisms of calcium-dependent neurodegeneration in excitotoxicityCell Calcium. (2003)
  63. ^ Reynolds IJ. Intracellular calcium and magnesium: critical determinants of excitotoxicityProg Brain Res. (1998)
  64. ^ Fromm L, et al. Magnesium attenuates post-traumatic depression/anxiety following diffuse traumatic brain injury in ratsJ Am Coll Nutr. (2004)
  65. ^ Kim YJ, et al. The effects of plasma and brain magnesium concentrations on lidocaine-induced seizures in the ratAnesth Analg. (1996)
  66. ^ McKee JA, et al. Analysis of the brain bioavailability of peripherally administered magnesium sulfate: A study in humans with acute brain injury undergoing prolonged induced hypermagnesemiaCrit Care Med. (2005)
  67. ^ Morris ME. Brain and CSF magnesium concentrations during magnesium deficit in animals and humans: neurological symptomsMagnes Res. (1992)
  68. a b c d e Abumaria N, et al. Effects of elevation of brain magnesium on fear conditioning, fear extinction, and synaptic plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdalaJ Neurosci. (2011)
  69. ^ Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B. Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)Magnes Res. (1997)
  70. ^ Archana E, et al. Altered biochemical parameters in saliva of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorderNeurochem Res. (2012)
  71. ^ Mahmoud MM, et al. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorderItal J Pediatr. (2011)
  72. ^ Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading testMagnes Res. (1997)
  73. ^ Huss M, Völp A, Stauss-Grabo M. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems – an observational cohort studyLipids Health Dis. (2010)
  74. ^ Lysakowski C, et al. Effect of magnesium, high altitude and acute mountain sickness on blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteryClin Sci (Lond). (2004)
  75. ^ Dumont L, et al. Magnesium for the prevention and treatment of acute mountain sicknessClin Sci (Lond). (2004)
  76. ^ Sato-Mito N, et al. The midpoint of sleep is associated with dietary intake and dietary behavior among young Japanese womenSleep Med. (2011)
  77. ^ Takase B, et al. Effect of chronic stress and sleep deprivation on both flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery and the intracellular magnesium level in humansClin Cardiol. (2004)
  78. ^ Held K, et al. Oral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humansPharmacopsychiatry. (2002)
  79. ^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment.
  80. ^ Nielsen FH, Johnson LK, Zeng H. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleepMagnes Res. (2010)
  81. ^ Nechifor M. Magnesium in major depressionMagnes Res. (2009)
  82. a b Widmer J, et al. Relationship between erythrocyte magnesium, plasma electrolytes and cortisol, and intensity of symptoms in major depressed patientsJ Affect Disord. (1995)
  83. ^ Barra A, et al. Plasma magnesium level and psychomotor retardation in major depressed patientsMagnes Res. (2007)
  84. ^ Levine J, et al. High serum and cerebrospinal fluid Ca/Mg ratio in recently hospitalized acutely depressed patientsNeuropsychobiology. (1999)
  85. ^ Spasov AA, et al. Depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour of rats fed with magnesium-deficient dietZh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. (2008)
  86. a b c Eby GA 3rd, Eby KL. Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesisMed Hypotheses. (2010)
  87. ^ Barragán-Rodríguez L, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Efficacy and safety of oral magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression in the elderly with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, equivalent trialMagnes Res. (2008)
  88. ^ Poleszak E, et al. Immobility stress induces depression-like behavior in the forced swim test in mice: effect of magnesium and imipraminePharmacol Rep. (2006)
  89. ^ Poleszak E, et al. NMDA/glutamate mechanism of antidepressant-like action of magnesium in forced swim test in micePharmacol Biochem Behav. (2007)
  90. ^ Poleszak E, et al. Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of magnesium in micePharmacol Biochem Behav. (2004)
  91. ^ Poleszak E, et al. Effects of acute and chronic treatment with magnesium in the forced swim test in ratsPharmacol Rep. (2005)
  92. ^ Mayer ML, Westbrook GL, Guthrie PB. Voltage-dependent block by Mg2+ of NMDA responses in spinal cord neuronesNature. (1984)
  93. ^ NMDA receptors, place cells and hippocampal spatial memory.
  94. ^ Lee YS, Silva AJ. The molecular and cellular biology of enhanced cognitionNat Rev Neurosci. (2009)
  95. ^ Slutsky I, et al. Enhancement of synaptic plasticity through chronically reduced Ca2+ flux during uncorrelated activityNeuron. (2004)
  96. ^ Tang YP, et al. Genetic enhancement of learning and memory in miceNature. (1999)
  97. ^ Landfield PW, Morgan GA. Chronically elevating plasma Mg2+ improves hippocampal frequency potentiation and reversal learning in aged and young ratsBrain Res. (1984)
  98. ^ Ramadan NM, et al. Low brain magnesium in migraineHeadache. (1989)
  99. ^ Lodi R, et al. Deficient energy metabolism is associated with low free magnesium in the brains of patients with migraine and cluster headacheBrain Res Bull. (2001)
  100. ^ Köseoglu E, et al. The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without auraMagnes Res. (2008)
  101. ^ Quaranta S, et al. Pilot study of the efficacy and safety of a modified-release magnesium 250 mg tablet (Sincromag) for the treatment of premenstrual syndromeClin Drug Investig. (2007)
  102. a b c De Souza MC, et al. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover studyJ Womens Health Gend Based Med. (2000)
  103. a b c Walker AF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retentionJ Womens Health. (1998)
  104. ^ Tejero-Taldo MI, Chmielinska JJ, Weglicki WB. Chronic dietary Mg2+ deficiency induces cardiac apoptosis in the rat heartMagnes Res. (2007)
  105. ^ Abbott RD, et al. Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease (the Honolulu Heart Program)Am J Cardiol. (2003)
  106. ^ Al-Delaimy WK, et al. Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among menJ Am Coll Nutr. (2004)
  107. ^ Mathers TW, Beckstrand RL. Oral magnesium supplementation in adults with coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease riskJ Am Acad Nurse Pract. (2009)
  108. ^ Corica F, et al. Magnesium concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and platelets in hypertensive and normotensive obese patientsAm J Hypertens. (1997)
  109. a b de Valk HW, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patientsDiabet Med. (1998)
  110. a b Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trialEur J Clin Invest. (2011)
  111. ^ Sacks FM, et al. Effect on blood pressure of potassium, calcium, and magnesium in women with low habitual intakeHypertension. (1998)
  112. a b c d Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M. The effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialJ Hum Hypertens. (2009)
  113. a b Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trialDiabetes Care. (2003)
  114. a b Hatzistavri LS, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertensionAm J Hypertens. (2009)
  115. ^ Kawano Y, et al. Effects of magnesium supplementation in hypertensive patients: assessment by office, home, and ambulatory blood pressuresHypertension. (1998)
  116. a b c d Lee S, et al. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2009)
  117. a b Doyle L, Flynn A, Cashman K. The effect of magnesium supplementation on biochemical markers of bone metabolism or blood pressure in healthy young adult femalesEur J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  118. a b c d Kishimoto Y, et al. Effects of magnesium on postprandial serum lipid responses in healthy human subjectsBr J Nutr. (2010)
  119. ^ Gacs G, Barltrop D. Significance of Ca-soap formation for calcium absorption in the ratGut. (1977)
  120. ^ Renaud S, et al. Protective effects of dietary calcium and magnesium on platelet function and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed saturated fatAtherosclerosis. (1983)
  121. ^ Bhattacharyya AK, et al. Dietary calcium and fat. Effect on serum lipids and fecal excretion of cholesterol and its degradation products in manAm J Clin Nutr. (1969)
  122. ^ Effects of Oral Calcium upon Serum Lipids in Man.
  123. ^ Denke MA, Fox MM, Schulte MC. Short-term dietary calcium fortification increases fecal saturated fat content and reduces serum lipids in menJ Nutr. (1993)
  124. a b c Guerrero-Romero F, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trialDiabetes Metab. (2004)
  125. ^ Garland HO. New experimental data on the relationship between diabetes mellitus and magnesiumMagnes Res. (1992)
  126. ^ Tosiello L. Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus. A review of clinical implicationsArch Intern Med. (1996)
  127. ^ Engelen W, et al. Are low magnesium levels in type 1 diabetes associated with electromyographical signs of polyneuropathyMagnes Res. (2000)
  128. a b De Leeuw I, et al. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm)Magnes Res. (2004)
  129. ^ De Leeuw I, et al. Effect of intensive magnesium supplementation on the in vitro oxidizability of LDL and VLDL in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patientsMagnes Res. (1998)
  130. a b Mooren FC, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects – a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trialDiabetes Obes Metab. (2011)
  131. a b Cinar V, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose and insulin levels of tae-kwan-do sportsmen and sedentary subjectsPak J Pharm Sci. (2008)
  132. a b c Golf SW, Bender S, Grüttner J. On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stressCardiovasc Drugs Ther. (1998)
  133. ^ Kurpad AV, Aeberli I. Low serum magnesium and obesity–causal role or diet biomarkerIndian Pediatr. (2012)
  134. ^ Huang JH, et al. Correlation of magnesium intake with metabolic parameters, depression and physical activity in elderly type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional studyNutr J. (2012)
  135. ^ Huerta MG, et al. Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese childrenDiabetes Care. (2005)
  136. ^ Celik N, Andiran N, Yilmaz AE. The relationship between serum magnesium levels with childhood obesity and insulin resistance: a review of the literatureJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  137. ^ Del Gobbo LC, et al. Low serum magnesium concentrations are associated with a high prevalence of premature ventricular complexes in obese adults with type 2 diabetesCardiovasc Diabetol. (2012)
  138. ^ Rodriguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Elevated concentrations of TNF-alpha are related to low serum magnesium levels in obese subjectsMagnes Res. (2004)
  139. ^ Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Serum magnesium in the metabolically-obese normal-weight and healthy-obese subjectsEur J Intern Med. (2013)
  140. ^ Iotti S, Malucelli E. In vivo assessment of Mg2+ in human brain and skeletal muscle by 31P-MRSMagnes Res. (2008)
  141. ^ Stephenson EW, Podolsky RJ. Regulation by magnesium of intracellular calcium movement in skinned muscle fibersJ Gen Physiol. (1977)
  142. a b Triger DR, Joekes AM. Severe muscle cramp due to acute hypomagnesaemia in haemodialysisBr Med J. (1969)
  143. a b Bilbey DL, Prabhakaran VM. Muscle cramps and magnesium deficiency: case reportsCan Fam Physician. (1996)
  144. ^ In vivo 31P-MRS assessment of cytosolic {Mg2+} in the human skeletal muscle in different metabolic conditions.
  145. ^ Malucelli E, et al. Free Mg2+ concentration in the calf muscle of glycogen phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase deficiency patients assessed in different metabolic conditions by 31P MRSDyn Med. (2005)
  146. ^ Andersen H, et al. Decreased muscle strength in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis in relation to nutritional status, alcohol abstinence, liver function, and neuropathyHepatology. (1998)
  147. ^ Aagaard NK, et al. Muscle strength, Na,K-pumps, magnesium and potassium in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis — relation to spironolactoneJ Intern Med. (2002)
  148. ^ Aagaard NK, et al. Magnesium supplementation and muscle function in patients with alcoholic liver disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trialScand J Gastroenterol. (2005)
  149. ^ Finstad EW, et al. The effects of magnesium supplementation on exercise performanceMed Sci Sports Exerc. (2001)
  150. a b Hantoushzadeh S, Jafarabadi M, Khazardoust S. Serum magnesium levels, muscle cramps, and preterm laborInt J Gynaecol Obstet. (2007)
  151. a b Kovács L, et al. Magnesium substitution in pregnancy. A prospective, randomized double-blind studyGeburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. (1988)
  152. a b Garrison SR, et al. The effect of magnesium infusion on rest cramps: randomized controlled trialJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2011)
  153. a b Garrison SR, et al. Magnesium for skeletal muscle crampsCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2012)
  154. a b Nygaard IH, et al. Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg crampsEur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. (2008)
  155. ^ Supakatisant C, Phupong V. Oral magnesium for relief in pregnancy-induced leg cramps: a randomised controlled trialMatern Child Nutr. (2012)
  156. ^ Dahle LO, et al. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg crampsAm J Obstet Gynecol. (1995)
  157. ^ Frusso R, et al. Magnesium for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps: a crossover randomized trialJ Fam Pract. (1999)
  158. ^ Roffe C, et al. Randomised, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of chronic persistent leg crampsMed Sci Monit. (2002)
  159. a b Cinar V, et al. Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustionBiol Trace Elem Res. (2011)
  160. ^ Cinar V. The effects of magnesium supplementation on thyroid hormones of sedentars and Tae-Kwon-Do sportsperson at resting and exhaustionNeuro Endocrinol Lett. (2007)
  161. a b c Cinar V, et al. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and exhaustion: effects of magnesium supplementationBiol Trace Elem Res. (2008)
  162. ^ Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in womenJAMA. (2005)
  163. ^ Lin J, et al. Total magnesium intake and colorectal cancer incidence in womenCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (2006)
  164. ^ Wark PA, et al. Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysisAm J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  165. ^ Buha A, et al. Effects of oral and intraperitoneal magnesium treatment against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in plasma of ratsArh Hig Rada Toksikol. (2012)
  166. ^ Djukić-Cosić D, et al. Effect of supplemental magnesium on the kidney levels of cadmium, zinc, and copper of mice exposed to toxic levels of cadmiumBiol Trace Elem Res. (2006)
  167. ^ Boujelben M, et al. Lipid peroxidation and HSP72/73 expression in rat following cadmium chloride administration: interactions of magnesium supplementationExp Toxicol Pathol. (2006)
  168. ^ Bulat ZP, et al. Zinc or magnesium supplementation modulates cd intoxication in blood, kidney, spleen, and bone of rabbitsBiol Trace Elem Res. (2008)
  169. ^ Dimai HP, et al. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult malesJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1998)
  170. ^ Meisel P, et al. Magnesium deficiency is associated with periodontal diseaseJ Dent Res. (2005)
  171. ^ Merchant AT. Higher serum magnesium:calcium ratio may lower periodontitis riskJ Evid Based Dent Pract. (2006)
  172. a b Aydin H, et al. Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic womenBiol Trace Elem Res. (2010)
  173. ^ Carpenter TO, et al. A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girlsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2006)
  174. ^ Rodriguez-Hernandez H, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation decreases alanine aminotransferase levels in obese womenMagnes Res. (2010)
  175. ^ Závaczki Z, et al. Magnesium-orotate supplementation for idiopathic infertile male patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical pilot studyMagnes Res. (2003)
  176. ^ Cevette MJ, et al. Phase 2 study examining magnesium-dependent tinnitusInt Tinnitus J. (2011)
  177. ^ Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (EPR-3).
  178. a b Kazaks AG, et al. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on measures of airway resistance and subjective assessment of asthma control and quality of life in men and women with mild to moderate asthma: a randomized placebo controlled trialJ Asthma. (2010)
  179. ^ Gontijo-Amaral C, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trialEur J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  180. ^ Bede O, et al. Urinary magnesium excretion in asthmatic children receiving magnesium supplementation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studyMagnes Res. (2003)
  181. ^ Fogarty A, et al. Oral magnesium and vitamin C supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomized placebo-controlled trialClin Exp Allergy. (2003)
  182. ^ Hill J, et al. Investigation of the effect of short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in asthmaEur Respir J. (1997)
  183. a b Jaipakdee S, et al. The effects of potassium and magnesium supplementations on urinary risk factors of renal stone patientsJ Med Assoc Thai. (2004)
  184. ^ Ariceta G, et al. Acute and chronic effects of cisplatin therapy on renal magnesium homeostasisMed Pediatr Oncol. (1997)
  185. ^ Lajer H, et al. Magnesium depletion enhances cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicityCancer Chemother Pharmacol. (2005)
  186. ^ Lajer H, et al. Magnesium and potassium homeostasis during cisplatin treatmentCancer Chemother Pharmacol. (2005)
  187. ^ Hodgkinson E, Neville-Webbe HL, Coleman RE. Magnesium depletion in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapyClin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). (2006)
  188. ^ Ashrafi F, et al. The Role of Magnesium Supplementation in Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in a Rat Model: No Nephroprotectant EffectInt J Prev Med. (2012)
  189. a b Firoz M, Graber M. Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparationsMagnes Res. (2001)
  190. ^ Kappeler D, et al. Higher bioavailability of magnesium citrate as compared to magnesium oxide shown by evaluation of urinary excretion and serum levels after single-dose administration in a randomized cross-over studyBMC Nutr. (2017)
  191. a b c Ranade VV, Somberg JC. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of magnesium after administration of magnesium salts to humansAm J Ther. (2001)
  192. ^ Siener R, Jahnen A, Hesse A. Bioavailability of magnesium from different pharmaceutical formulationsUrol Res. (2011)
  193. ^ Hendry PO, et al. Randomized clinical trial of laxatives and oral nutritional supplements within an enhanced recovery after surgery protocol following liver resectionBr J Surg. (2010)
  194. a b Lindberg JS, et al. Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxideJ Am Coll Nutr. (1990)
  195. ^ Walker AF, et al. Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind studyMagnes Res. (2003)
  196. ^ Coudray C, et al. Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approachMagnes Res. (2005)
  197. ^ Spasov AA, et al. Comparative study of magnesium salts bioavailability in rats fed a magnesium-deficient dietVestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. (2010)
  198. ^ Wallach S. Availability of body magnesium during magnesium deficiencyMagnesium. (1988)
  199. ^ Mühlbauer B, et al. Magnesium-L-aspartate-HCl and magnesium-oxide: bioavailability in healthy volunteersEur J Clin Pharmacol. (1991)
  200. ^ Schuette SA, Lashner BA, Janghorbani M. Bioavailability of magnesium diglycinate vs magnesium oxide in patients with ileal resectionJPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. (1994)
  201. ^ Zeana C. Magnesium orotate in myocardial and neuronal protectionRom J Intern Med. (1999)
  202. ^ Stepura OB, Martynow AI. Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH)Int J Cardiol. (2009)
  203. ^ Bush AI. Kalzium ist nicht allesNeuron. (2010)
  204. a b Wilborn CD, et al. Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA) Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and CatabolismJ Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2004)
  205. ^ Koehler K, et al. Serum testosterone and urinary excretion of steroid hormone metabolites after administration of a high-dose zinc supplementEur J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  206. ^ Basso LE, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on the fractional intestinal absorption of 45CaCl2 in women with a low erythrocyte magnesium concentrationMetabolism. (2000)
  207. ^ Bioavailability of Calcium and Magnesium from Magnesium Citrate Calcium Malate.
  208. ^ Langley WF, Mann DJ. Skeletal buffer function and symptomatic magnesium deficiencyMed Hypotheses. (1991)
  209. ^ Chopra S, Cherian D, Jacob JJ. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertensionIndian J Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  210. ^ Young EW, et al. Regulation of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D in essential hypertensionAm J Hypertens. (1995)
  211. ^ Majumdar P, Boylan LM. Alteration of tissue magnesium levels in rats by dietary vitamin B6 supplementationInt J Vitam Nutr Res. (1989)
  212. a b Eisinger J, Dagorn J. Vitamin B6 and magnesiumMagnesium. (1986)
  213. ^ Bernstein AL. Vitamin B6 in clinical neurologyAnn N Y Acad Sci. (1990)
  214. ^ Rob PM, et al. Cyclosporin induces magnesium deficiency in rats and thereby aggravates its own nephrotoxicity: benefit of magnesium supplementationTransplant Proc. (1994)
  215. ^ Okada T, et al. Clinical evaluation of chronic nephrotoxicity of long-term cyclosporine A treatment in adult patients with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndromeNephrology (Carlton). (2011)
  216. a b Ikari A, et al. DoNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. (2008)
  217. ^ Kim SJ, et al. Immunosuppressants inhibit hormone-stimulated Mg2+ uptake in mouse distal convoluted tubule cellsBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2006)
  218. ^ Tarighat Esfanjani A, et al. The Effects of Magnesium, L-: Carnitine, and Concurrent Magnesium-L-: Carnitine Supplementation in Migraine ProphylaxisBiol Trace Elem Res. (2012)
  219. ^ Rondón LJ, Rayssiguier Y, Mazur A. Dietary inulin in mice stimulates Mg2+ absorption and modulates TRPM6 and TRPM7 expression in large intestine and kidneyMagnes Res. (2008)
  220. ^ Nechifor M, et al. Magnesium influence on nicotine pharmacodependence and smokingMagnes Res. (2004)
  221. ^ Takizawa T, et al. {A 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study of magnesium chloride in F344 rats}Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyusho Hokoku. (2000)
  222. ^ Guillard O, et al. Unexpected toxicity induced by magnesium orotate treatment in congenital hypomagnesemiaJ Intern Med. (2002)
  223. Ebrahimi E, et al. Effects of magnesium and vitamin b6 on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptomsJ Caring Sci. (2012)
  224. Facchinetti F, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changesObstet Gynecol. (1991)
  225. Brilla LR, Haley TF. Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humansJ Am Coll Nutr. (1992)
  226. Ebben M, Lequerica A, Spielman A. Effects of pyridoxine on dreaming: a preliminary studyPercept Mot Skills. (2002)
  227. Xie L, et al. Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brainScience. (2013)
  228. Rasch B, Born J. About sleep’s role in memoryPhysiol Rev. (2013)
  229. Born J, Rasch B, Gais S. Sleep to rememberNeuroscientist. (2006)
  230. Haack M, Sanchez E, Mullington JM. Elevated inflammatory markers in response to prolonged sleep restriction are associated with increased pain experience in healthy volunteersSleep. (2007)
  231. Alhola P, Polo-Kantola P. Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performanceNeuropsychiatr Dis Treat. (2007)
  232. Nedeltcheva AV, et al. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposityAnn Intern Med. (2010)
  233. Bosy-Westphal A, et al. Influence of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance and insulin sensitivity in healthy womenObes Facts. (2008)
  234. Broussard JL, et al. Impaired insulin signaling in human adipocytes after experimental sleep restriction: a randomized, crossover studyAnn Intern Med. (2012)
  235. Buxton OM, et al. Sleep restriction for 1 week reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy menDiabetes. (2010)
  236. Donga E, et al. A single night of partial sleep deprivation induces insulin resistance in multiple metabolic pathways in healthy subjectsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  237. Cote KA, et al. Sleep deprivation lowers reactive aggression and testosterone in menBiol Psychol. (2013)
  238. Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy menJAMA. (2011)
  239. Penev PD. Association between sleep and morning testosterone levels in older menSleep. (2007)
  240. González-Santos MR, et al. Sleep deprivation and adaptive hormonal responses of healthy menArch Androl. (1989)
  241. Cortés-Gallegos V, et al. Sleep deprivation reduces circulating androgens in healthy menArch Androl. (1983)
  242. Nagai M, Hoshide S, Kario K. Sleep duration as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease- a review of the recent literatureCurr Cardiol Rev. (2010)
  243. Rosinger AY, et al. Short sleep duration is associated with inadequate hydration: Cross-cultural evidence from US and Chinese adultsSleep. (2018)
  244. Andrade A, et al. Sleep Quality, Mood and Performance: A Study of Elite Brazilian Volleyball AthletesJ Sports Sci Med. (2016)
  245. Mah CD, et al. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball playersSleep. (2011)
  246. Andersen ML, et al. The association of testosterone, sleep, and sexual function in men and womenBrain Res. (2011)
  247. Lo JC, et al. Cognitive Performance, Sleepiness, and Mood in Partially Sleep Deprived Adolescents: The Need for Sleep StudySleep. (2016)
  248. Lastella M, Lovell GP, Sargent C. Athletes’ precompetitive sleep behaviour and its relationship with subsequent precompetitive mood and performanceEur J Sport Sci. (2014)
  249. McClung CA. How might circadian rhythms control mood? Let me count the waysBiol Psychiatry. (2013)
  250. Zohar D, et al. The effects of sleep loss on medical residents’ emotional reactions to work events: a cognitive-energy modelSleep. (2005)
  251. Tosini G, Ferguson I, Tsubota K. Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiologyMol Vis. (2016)
  252. Bedrosian TA, Nelson RJ. Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuitsTransl Psychiatry. (2017)
  253. Heo JY, et al. Effects of smartphone use with and without blue light at night in healthy adults: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparisonJ Psychiatr Res. (2017)
  254. Esaki Y, et al. Wearing blue light-blocking glasses in the evening advances circadian rhythms in the patients with delayed sleep phase disorder: An open-label trialChronobiol Int. (2016)
  255. Skeldon AC, Phillips AJ, Dijk DJ. The effects of self-selected light-dark cycles and social constraints on human sleep and circadian timing: a modeling approachSci Rep. (2017)
  256. Basner M, et al. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014Noise Health. (2015)
  257. Halperin D. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?Sleep Sci. (2014)
  258. Hume KI, Brink M, Basner M. Effects of environmental noise on sleepNoise Health. (2012)
  259. Portas CM, et al. Auditory processing across the sleep-wake cycle: simultaneous EEG and fMRI monitoring in humansNeuron. (2000)
  260. Neitzel R, Somers S, Seixas N. Variability of real-world hearing protector attenuation measurementsAnn Occup Hyg. (2006)
  261. Huang CY, Chang ET, Lai HL. Comparing the effects of music and exercise with music for older adults with insomniaAppl Nurs Res. (2016)
  262. Lack LC, et al. The relationship between insomnia and body temperaturesSleep Med Rev. (2008)
  263. Okamoto-Mizuno K, Mizuno K. Effects of thermal environment on sleep and circadian rhythmJ Physiol Anthropol. (2012)
  264. Okamoto-Mizuno K, et al. Effects of humid heat exposure on human sleep stages and body temperatureSleep. (1999)
  265. Murphy PJ, Campbell SS. Nighttime drop in body temperature: a physiological trigger for sleep onset?Sleep. (1997)
  266. Libert JP, et al. Relative and combined effects of heat and noise exposure on sleep in humansSleep. (1991)
  267. Stein MD, Friedmann PD. Disturbed sleep and its relationship to alcohol useSubst Abus. (2005)
  268. Park SY, et al. The Effects of Alcohol on Quality of SleepKorean J Fam Med. (2015)
  269. Stone BM. Sleep and low doses of alcoholElectroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. (1980)
  270. Barry RJ, Clarke AR, Johnstone SJ. Caffeine and opening the eyes have additive effects on resting arousal measuresClin Neurophysiol. (2011)
  271. Childs E, de Wit H. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine usersPsychopharmacology (Berl). (2006)
  272. Holtzman SG. CGS 15943, a nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist: effects on locomotor activity of nontolerant and caffeine-tolerant ratsLife Sci. (1991)
  273. Drake C, et al. Caffeine effects on sleep taken 0, 3, or 6 hours before going to bedJ Clin Sleep Med. (2013)
  274. Baron KG, Reid KJ, Zee PC. Exercise to improve sleep in insomnia: exploration of the bidirectional effectsJ Clin Sleep Med. (2013)
  275. Kline CE. The bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep: Implications for exercise adherence and sleep improvementAm J Lifestyle Med. (2014)
  276. VanHelder T, Radomski MW. Sleep deprivation and the effect on exercise performanceSports Med. (1989)
  277. Tang NK, Sanborn AN. Better quality sleep promotes daytime physical activity in patients with chronic pain? A multilevel analysis of the within-person relationshipPLoS One. (2014)
  278. Souissi N, et al. Effect of time of day and partial sleep deprivation on short-term, high-power outputChronobiol Int. (2008)
  279. Loprinzi PD, Cardinal BJ. Association between objectively-measured physical activity and sleep, NHANES 2005–2006. Mental Health and Physical ActivityMent Health Phys Act. (2011)
  280. Wunsch K, Kasten N, Fuchs R. The effect of physical activity on sleep quality, well-being, and affect in academic stress periodsNat Sci Sleep. (2017)
  281. Wang F, et al. The effect of meditative movement on sleep quality: A systematic reviewSleep Med Rev. (2016)
  282. Reid KJ, et al. Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomniaSleep Med. (2010)
  283. Kovacevic A, et al. The effect of resistance exercise on sleep: A systematic review of randomized controlled trialsSleep Med Rev. (2018)
  284. Hartescu I, Morgan K, Stevinson CD. Increased physical activity improves sleep and mood outcomes in inactive people with insomnia: a randomized controlled trialJ Sleep Res. (2015)
  285. Murray K, et al. The relations between sleep, time of physical activity, and time outdoors among adult womenPLoS One. (2017)
  286. Tahara Y, Aoyama S, Shibata S. The mammalian circadian clock and its entrainment by stress and exerciseJ Physiol Sci. (2017)
  287. 2013 Sleep in America® Poll: Exercise and Sleep (summary of findings), “Exercise is good, regardless of time of day” (pages 46–49).
  288. Swaminathan K, Klerman EB, Phillips AJK. Are Individual Differences in Sleep and Circadian Timing Amplified by Use of Artificial Light Sources?J Biol Rhythms. (2017)
  289. Phillips AJK, et al. Irregular sleep/wake patterns are associated with poorer academic performance and delayed circadian and sleep/wake timingSci Rep. (2017)
  290. Ferracioli-Oda E, Qawasmi A, Bloch MH. Meta-analysis: melatonin for the treatment of primary sleep disordersPLoS One. (2013)
  291. van Geijlswijk IM, et al. Evaluation of sleep, puberty and mental health in children with long-term melatonin treatment for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomniaPsychopharmacology (Berl). (2011)
  292. Luthringer R, et al. The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomniaInt Clin Psychopharmacol. (2009)
  293. Lemoine P, et al. Prolonged-release melatonin improves sleep quality and morning alertness in insomnia patients aged 55 years and older and has no withdrawal effectsJ Sleep Res. (2007)
  294. Noyek S, Yaremchuk K, Rotenberg B. Does melatonin have a meaningful role as a sleep aid for jet lag recovery?Laryngoscope. (2016)
  295. Herxheimer A, Petrie KJ. Melatonin for the prevention and treatment of jet lagCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2002)
  296. Hätönen T, Alila A, Laakso ML. Exogenous melatonin fails to counteract the light-induced phase delay of human melatonin rhythmBrain Res. (1996)
  297. Matsumoto M, et al. The amplitude of endogenous melatonin production is not affected by melatonin treatment in humansJ Pineal Res. (1997)
  298. Wright J, et al. The effects of exogenous melatonin on endocrine function in manClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1986)
  299. Arendt J, et al. Some effects of melatonin and the control of its secretion in humansCiba Found Symp. (1985)
  300. Naylor S, Gleich GJ. Over-the-counter melatonin products and contaminationAm Fam Physician. (1999)
  301. Williamson BL, et al. Structural characterization of contaminants found in commercial preparations of melatonin: similarities to case-related compounds from L-tryptophan associated with eosinophilia-myalgia syndromeChem Res Toxicol. (1998)
  302. Erland LA, Saxena PK. Melatonin Natural Health Products and Supplements: Presence of Serotonin and Significant Variability of Melatonin ContentJ Clin Sleep Med. (2017)
  303. Costello RB, Moser-Veillon PB. A review of magnesium intake in the elderly. A cause for concern?Magnes Res. (1992)
  304. Nielsen FH, Lukaski HC. Update on the relationship between magnesium and exerciseMagnes Res. (2006)
  305. Tang YM, et al. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkersInd Health. (2016)
  306. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research; Marriott BM, editor. Washington (DC). Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments, “Influence of Exercise and Heat on Magnesium Metabolism”National Academies Press (US). (1993)
  307. Consolazio CF, et al. Excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium and iron in human sweat and the relation of each to balance and requirementsJ Nutr. (1963)
  308. Yoshimura Y, et al. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Orally Administered Magnesium Oxide in RatsYakugaku Zasshi. (2017)
  309. Sayorwan W, et al. The effects of lavender oil inhalation on emotional states, autonomic nervous system, and brain electrical activityJ Med Assoc Thai. (2012)
  310. Field T, et al. Lavender bath oil reduces stress and crying and enhances sleep in very young infantsEarly Hum Dev. (2008)
  311. Lehrner J, et al. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental officePhysiol Behav. (2005)
  312. Lee IS, Lee GJ. Effects of lavender aromatherapy on insomnia and depression in women college studentsTaehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. (2006)
  313. Lewith GT, Godfrey AD, Prescott P. A single-blinded, randomized pilot study evaluating the aroma of Lavandula augustifolia as a treatment for mild insomniaJ Altern Complement Med. (2005)
  314. Chien LW, Cheng SL, Liu CF. The effect of lavender aromatherapy on autonomic nervous system in midlife women with insomniaEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2012)
  315. Goel N, Kim H, Lao RP. An olfactory stimulus modifies nighttime sleep in young men and womenChronobiol Int. (2005)
  316. Kasper S, et al. Silexan in anxiety disorders: Clinical data and pharmacological backgroundWorld J Biol Psychiatry. (2018)
  317. Kasper S, Anghelescu I, Dienel A. Efficacy of orally administered Silexan in patients with anxiety-related restlessness and disturbed sleep–A randomized, placebo-controlled trialEur Neuropsychopharmacol. (2015)
  318. Kasper S, et al. Lavender oil preparation Silexan is effective in generalized anxiety disorder–a randomized, double-blind comparison to placebo and paroxetineInt J Neuropsychopharmacol. (2014)
  319. Kasper S, et al. Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of ‘subsyndromal’ anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trialInt Clin Psychopharmacol. (2010)
  320. Maggio M, et al. The Interplay between Magnesium and Testosterone in Modulating Physical Function in MenInt J Endocrinol. (2014)
  321. Maggio M, et al. Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older menInt J Androl. (2011)
  322. Rodgers S, et al. Serum testosterone levels and symptom-based depression subtypes in menFront Psychiatry. (2015)
  323. Johnson JM, Nachtigall LB, Stern TA. The effect of testosterone levels on mood in men: a reviewPsychosomatics. (2013)
  324. Bassil N, Alkaade S, Morley JE. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a reviewTher Clin Risk Manag. (2009)
  325. Zarrouf FA, et al. Testosterone and depression: systematic review and meta-analysisJ Psychiatr Pract. (2009)
  326. Davis SR, Wahlin-Jacobsen S. Testosterone in women–the clinical significanceLancet Diabetes Endocrinol. (2015)
  327. Martínez-Cengotitabengoa M, González-Pinto A. Nutritional supplements in depressive disordersActas Esp Psiquiatr. (2017)
  328. Cortese BM, Phan KL. The role of glutamate in anxiety and related disordersCNS Spectr. (2005)
  329. Bergink V, van Megen HJ, Westenberg HG. Glutamate and anxietyEur Neuropsychopharmacol. (2004)
  330. Tarleton EK, Littenberg B. Magnesium intake and depression in adultsJ Am Board Fam Med. (2015)
  331. Derom ML, et al. Magnesium and depression: a systematic reviewNutr Neurosci. (2013)
  332. Boyle NB, Lawton C, Dye L. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress-A Systematic ReviewNutrients. (2017)
  333. Fard FE, et al. Effects of zinc and magnesium supplements on postpartum depression and anxiety: A randomized controlled clinical trialWomen Health. (2017)
  334. Phelan D, et al. Magnesium and mood disorders: systematic review and meta-analysisBJPsych Open. (2018)
  335. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride, page 242.
  336. Li Z, et al. Association of total zinc, iron, copper and selenium intakes with depression in the US adultsJ Affect Disord. (2018)
  337. Roy A, et al. Higher zinc intake buffers the impact of stress on depressive symptoms in pregnancyNutr Res. (2010)
  338. Ranjbar E, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation in patients with major depression: a randomized clinical trialIran J Psychiatry. (2013)
  339. Swardfager W, et al. Potential roles of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorderNeurosci Biobehav Rev. (2013)
  340. Nowak G, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on antidepressant therapy in unipolar depression: a preliminary placebo-controlled studyPol J Pharmacol. (2003)
  341. Netter A, Hartoma R, Nahoul K. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm countArch Androl. (1981)
  342. Chang CS, et al. Correlation between serum testosterone level and concentrations of copper and zinc in hair tissueBiol Trace Elem Res. (2011)
  343. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.
  344. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common coldCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2011)
  345. Valentiner-Branth P, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of zinc as adjuvant therapy in children 2-35 mo of age with severe or nonsevere pneumonia in Bhaktapur, NepalAm J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  346. Willis MS, et al. Zinc-induced copper deficiency: a report of three cases initially recognized on bone marrow examinationAm J Clin Pathol. (2005)
  347. Afrin LB. Fatal copper deficiency from excessive use of zinc-based denture adhesiveAm J Med Sci. (2010)
  348. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, page 446.
  349. Meunier N, et al. Importance of zinc in the elderly: the ZENITH studyEur J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  350. Blumberg J. Nutritional needs of seniorsJ Am Coll Nutr. (1997)
  351. Tipton K, et al. Zinc loss in sweat of athletes exercising in hot and neutral temperaturesInt J Sport Nutr. (1993)
  352. Parker GB, Brotchie H, Graham RK. Vitamin D and depressionJ Affect Disord. (2017)
  353. Allan GM, et al. Vitamin D: A Narrative Review Examining the Evidence for Ten BeliefsJ Gen Intern Med. (2016)
  354. Nair R, Maseeh A. Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitaminJ Pharmacol Pharmacother. (2012)
  355. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiencyN Engl J Med. (2007)
  356. Forrest KY, Stuhldreher WL. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adultsNutr Res. (2011)
  357. Melrose S. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment ApproachesDepress Res Treat. (2015)
  358. Kerr DC, et al. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult womenPsychiatry Res. (2015)
  359. O’Hare C, et al. Seasonal and meteorological associations with depressive symptoms in older adults: A geo-epidemiological studyJ Affect Disord. (2016)
  360. Golden RN, et al. The efficacy of light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders: a review and meta-analysis of the evidenceAm J Psychiatry. (2005)
  361. Lam RW, et al. The Can-SAD study: a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of light therapy and fluoxetine in patients with winter seasonal affective disorderAm J Psychiatry. (2006)
  362. Vellekkatt F, Menon V. Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in major depression: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsJ Postgrad Med. (2018)
  363. Spedding S. Vitamin D and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing studies with and without biological flawsNutrients. (2014)
  364. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium, et al. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.
  365. Cashman KD, et al. Improved Dietary Guidelines for Vitamin D: Application of Individual Participant Data (IPD)-Level Meta-Regression AnalysesNutrients. (2017)
  366. Heaney R, et al. Letter to Veugelers, P.J. and Ekwaru, J.P., A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4472-4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472Nutrients. (2015)
  367. Veugelers PJ, Ekwaru JP. A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin DNutrients. (2014)
  368. Grosso G, et al. Dietary n-3 PUFA, fish consumption and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studiesJ Affect Disord. (2016)
  369. Mocking RJ, et al. Meta-analysis and meta-regression of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for major depressive disorderTransl Psychiatry. (2016)
  370. Burhani MD, Rasenick MM. Fish oil and depression: The skinny on fatsJ Integr Neurosci. (2017)
  371. Bastiaansen JA, et al. The efficacy of fish oil supplements in the treatment of depression: food for thoughtTransl Psychiatry. (2016)
  372. Lane K, et al. Bioavailability and potential uses of vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the literatureCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2014)
  373. Hussein N, et al. Long-chain conversion of 13Clinoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in response to marked changes in their dietary intake in menJ Lipid Res. (2005)
  374. Pawlosky RJ, et al. Physiological compartmental analysis of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in adult humansJ Lipid Res. (2001)
  375. Fokkema MR, et al. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extentProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2000)
  376. Emken EA, Adlof RO, Gulley RM. Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult malesBiochim Biophys Acta. (1994)
  377. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Human Nutrition, page 245, table 49.
  378. Jenkins TA, et al. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain AxisNutrients. (2016)
  379. Cowen PJ, Browning M. What has serotonin to do with depression?World Psychiatry. (2015)
  380. Feder A, et al. Tryptophan depletion and emotional processing in healthy volunteers at high risk for depressionBiol Psychiatry. (2011)
  381. Richard DM, et al. L-Tryptophan: Basic Metabolic Functions, Behavioral Research and Therapeutic IndicationsInt J Tryptophan Res. (2009)
  382. Young SN, Leyton M. The role of serotonin in human mood and social interaction. Insight from altered tryptophan levelsPharmacol Biochem Behav. (2002)
  383. Lindseth G, Helland B, Caspers J. The effects of dietary tryptophan on affective disordersArch Psychiatr Nurs. (2015)
  384. Kroes MC, et al. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanismNeuroimage. (2014)
  385. Møller SE, Kirk L, Honoré P. Relationship between plasma ratio of tryptophan to competing amino acids and the response to L-tryptophan treatment in endogenously depressed patientsJ Affect Disord. (1980)
  386. Travison TG, et al. The relationship between libido and testosterone levels in aging menJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2006)
  387. Chrysohoou C, et al. Low total testosterone levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome in elderly men: the role of body weight, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation; the Ikaria studyRev Diabet Stud. (2013)
  388. Westley CJ, Amdur RL, Irwig MS. High Rates of Depression and Depressive Symptoms among Men Referred for Borderline Testosterone LevelsJ Sex Med. (2015)
  389. Giltay EJ, et al. Salivary testosterone: associations with depression, anxiety disorders, and antidepressant use in a large cohort studyJ Psychosom Res. (2012)
  390. Feldman HA, et al. Age trends in the level of serum testosterone and other hormones in middle-aged men: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging studyJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2002)
  391. Wu FC, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European Male Aging StudyJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  392. Handelsman DJ, et al. Age-specific population centiles for androgen status in menEur J Endocrinol. (2015)
  393. O’Leary CB, Hackney AC. Acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on the testosterone and cortisol responses in obese males: a systematic reviewPhysiol Res. (2014)
  394. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and trainingSports Med. (2005)
  395. Daly W, et al. Relationship between stress hormones and testosterone with prolonged endurance exerciseEur J Appl Physiol. (2005)
  396. Hackney AC, Aggon E. Chronic Low Testosterone Levels in Endurance Trained Men: The Exercise- Hypogonadal Male ConditionJ Biochem Physiol. (2018)
  397. Grossmann M. Low testosterone in men with type 2 diabetes: significance and treatmentJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  398. Tajar A, et al. Characteristics of secondary, primary, and compensated hypogonadism in aging men: evidence from the European Male Ageing StudyJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  399. Hall SA, et al. Correlates of low testosterone and symptomatic androgen deficiency in a population-based sampleJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  400. Grossmann M, Matsumoto AM. A Perspective on Middle-Aged and Older Men With Functional Hypogonadism: Focus on Holistic ManagementJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2017)
  401. Corona G, et al. Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysisEur J Endocrinol. (2013)
  402. Camacho EM, et al. Age-associated changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function in middle-aged and older men are modified by weight change and lifestyle factors: longitudinal results from the European Male Ageing StudyEur J Endocrinol. (2013)
  403. Pilz S, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in menHorm Metab Res. (2011)
  404. Wehr E, et al. Association of vitamin D status with serum androgen levels in menClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2010)
  405. Uwitonze AM, Razzaque MS. Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and FunctionJ Am Osteopath Assoc. (2018)
  406. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride.
  407. Gonzales-Arimborgo C, et al. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled StudyPharmaceuticals (Basel). (2016)
  408. Zenico T, et al. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trialAndrologia. (2009)
  409. Gonzales GF, et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy menAndrologia. (2002)
  410. Dording CM, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of maca root as treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in womenEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2015)
  411. G. D’Aniello, et al. D-asparate, a key element for the improvement of sperm qualityAdvances in Sexual Medicine. (2012)
  412. Topo E, et al. The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and ratsReprod Biol Endocrinol. (2009)
  413. Melville GW, Siegler JC, Marshall PW. Three and six grams supplementation of d-aspartic acid in resistance trained menJ Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2015)
  414. Willoughby DS, Leutholtz B. D-aspartic acid supplementation combined with 28 days of heavy resistance training has no effect on body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in resistance-trained menNutr Res. (2013)