Lysine

Lysine, L-lysine

Lysine is a building block for protein. It’s an essential amino acid because your body cannot make it, so you need to obtain it from food. It’s important for normal growth and muscle turnover and used to form carnitine, a substance found in most cells of your body. What’s more, it helps transport fats across your cells to be burned for energy.

Nutraceutic

  • Origin Plant Based, Animal Product, Synthetic
  • Source
  • Type Amino Acid

Energy and Mood

Energy and mood are associated with several external and internal factors. Hormone release, brain chemical balance, nutrient metabolism, and several other elements alter the way the body and mind respond to daily activities. The compounds that benefit energy and mood are the ones that help in the balance of all these factors.
  • Anxiety

    Anxiety is the body's natural response to stress. It's a feeling of fear or apprehension about what's to come. It can be triggered by a specific situation and not last long - which is very common and ok - or it can be a generalized disorder (which is considered a illness) that can bring harm to everyday life and also cause other conditions like depression.
  • Age Range
  • Toxicity May be toxic in high doses
  • Side effects Intestinal distress
  • Warnings

Why be Careful

May cause intestinal distress when consumed in high doses. but is can be alleviated by lowering the dose.

References

  1. a b c Mirmiranpour H et al.. The Preventive Effect of L-Lysine on Lysozyme Glycation in Type 2 DiabetesActa Med Iran. (2016)
  2. a b c Flodin NW. The metabolic roles, pharmacology, and toxicology of lysineJ Am Coll Nutr. (1997)
  3. ^ FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition.
  4. ^ Gahl MJ et al.. Use of a four-parameter logistic equation to evaluate the response of growing rats to ten levels of each indispensable amino acidJ Nutr. (1991)
  5. ^ Said AK, Hegsted DM, Hayes KC. Response of adult rats to deficiencies of different essential amino acidsBr J Nutr. (1974)
  6. ^ Claeys WL, De Vleeschouwer K, Hendrickx ME. Effect of amino acids on acrylamide formation and elimination kineticsBiotechnol Prog. (2005)
  7. a b Gao S et al.. Amino acid facilitates absorption of copper in the Caco-2 cell culture modelLife Sci. (2014)
  8. ^ Bertinato J et al.. l-Lysine supplementation does not affect the bioavailability of copper or iron in ratsJ Trace Elem Med Biol. (2016)
  9. a b Mitchell GV, Jenkins MY. Effect of excess L-lysine on rat growth and on plasma and tissue concentrations of copper, iron and zincJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (1983)
  10. ^ Aoyagi S, Baker DH. Copper-amino acid complexes are partially protected against inhibitory effects of L-cysteine and L-ascorbic acid on copper absorption in chicksJ Nutr. (1994)
  11. ^ Rabiansky PA et al.. Evaluating copper lysine and copper sulfate sources for heifersJ Dairy Sci. (1999)
  12. ^ Apgar GA, Kornegay ET. Mineral balance of finishing pigs fed copper sulfate or a copper-lysine complex at growth-stimulating levelsJ Anim Sci. (1996)
  13. ^ Kegley EB, Spears JW. Bioavailability of feed-grade copper sources (oxide, sulfate, or lysine) in growing cattleJ Anim Sci. (1994)
  14. a b O’Kane RL et al.. Cationic amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier is mediated exclusively by system y+Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2006)
  15. ^ White MF, Gazzola GC, Christensen HN. Cationic amino acid transport into cultured animal cells. I. Influx into cultured human fibroblastsJ Biol Chem. (1982)
  16. ^ Closs EI et al.. Interference of L-arginine analogues with L-arginine transport mediated by the y+ carrier hCAT-2BNitric Oxide. (1997)
  17. ^ Carter BW Jr, Chicoine LG, Nelin LD. L-lysine decreases nitric oxide production and increases vascular resistance in lungs isolated from lipopolysaccharide-treated neonatal pigsPediatr Res. (2004)
  18. a b c Wass C et al.. L-lysine as adjunctive treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a single-blinded, randomized, cross-over pilot studyBMC Med. (2011)
  19. a b c Jafarnejad A et al.. The improvement effect of L-Lys as a chemical chaperone on STZ-induced diabetic rats, protein structure and functionDiabetes Metab Res Rev. (2008)
  20. ^ Unni US et al.. The effect of a controlled 8-week metabolic ward based lysine supplementation on muscle function, insulin sensitivity and leucine kinetics in young menClin Nutr. (2012)
  21. ^ Younus H, Anwar S. Prevention of non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation): Implication in the treatment of diabetic complicationInt J Health Sci (Qassim). (2016)
  22. a b William J. Welch, C. Randell Brown. Influence of molecular and chemical chaperones on protein foldingCell Stress Chaperones. (1996)
  23. ^ Tankersley RW Jr.. Amino Acid Requirements of Herpes Simplex Virus in Human CellsJ Bacteriol. (1964)
  24. ^ Griffith RS, DeLong DC, Nelson JD. Relation of arginine-lysine antagonism to herpes simplex growth in tissue cultureChemotherapy. (1981)
  25. ^ Simon CA et al.. Failure of lysine in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infectionArch Dermatol. (1985)
  26. ^ DiGiovanna JJ, Blank H. Failure of lysine in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxisArch Dermatol. (1984)
  27. a b c d Griffith RS et al.. Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxisDermatologica. (1987)
  28. a b c McCune MA. Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex infections with L-lysine monohydrochlorideCutis. (1984)
  29. a b Thein DJ, Hurt WC. Lysine as a prophylactic agent in the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialisOral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. (1984)
  30. ^ Milman N, Scheibel J, Jessen O. Lysine prophylaxis in recurrent herpes simplex labialis: a double-blind, controlled crossover studyActa Derm Venereol. (1980)
  31. ^ Isidori A, Lo Monaco A, Cappa M. A study of growth hormone release in man after oral administration of amino acidsCurr Med Res Opin. (1981)
  32. ^ Corpas E, et al. Oral arginine-lysine does not increase growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor-I in old menJ Gerontol. (1993)
  33. ^ Fogelholm GM, et al. Low-dose amino acid supplementation: no effects on serum human growth hormone and insulin in male weightliftersInt J Sport Nutr. (1993)
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  35. ^ Busque SM et al.. L-type amino acids stimulate gastric acid secretion by activation of the calcium-sensing receptor in parietal cellsAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. (2005)
  36. ^ Arthur D. Conigrave et al.. L-Amino acid sensing by the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptorPNAS. (1999)
  37. ^ Bihuniak JD et al.. Supplementing a low-protein diet with dibasic amino acids increases urinary calcium excretion in young womenJ Nutr. (2014)
  38. ^ Civitelli R et al.. Dietary L-lysine and calcium metabolism in humansNutrition. (1992)
  39. ^ Rubin AL et al.. The use of L-lysine monomydrochloride in combination with mercurial diuretics in the treatment of refractory fluid retentionCirculation. (1960)
  40. ^ Lasser RP et al.. L-lysine monohydrochloride. A clinical study of its action as a chloruretic acidifying adjuvant to mercurial diureticsN Engl J Med. (1960)
  41. ^ Hevia et al.. Serum lipids of rats fed excess L-lysine and different carbohydratesJ Nutr. (1980)