Limonene

Limonene, Lemon Extract, D-Limonene

Limonene (or D-limonene) is an oil extracted from lemon peels and other citrus fruits. It is known to be anti-carcinogenic and liver protector. It has antiseptic, antioxidant, astringent, deodorizing and bacteriostatic properties, as well as anti-dandruff and anti-greasy action for skin and hair.

Nutraceutic

  • Origin Plant Based
  • Source Fruits, Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Citrus Fruits
  • Type Phytochemicals, Nootropic

Cardiovascular Health

The cardiovascular system is responsible for blood circulation, which has the function of transporting nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. It consists of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular diseases are caused by changes in the blood lipid profile, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart failure, genetic predisposition, overweight, stress, and others. The compounds that help cardiovascular health are those that normalize risk factors, such as cholesterol.
  • Blood Pressure

    Blood pressure is the pressure of circulating blood against the walls of blood vessels which results from the heart pumping blood through the circulatory system. Like most aspects of the organism, this too needs to stay at a healthy range, for the circulation of oxygen and nutrients throughout the body.
  • Age Range Adults (20-59), Seniors (>60)
  • Toxicity There is no evidence of toxicity until now
  • Side effects Skin Rashes, Irritation
  • Warnings Pregnancy

Why be Careful

Limonene is considered safe with little risk of side effects. However, atention is needed when handling its oil, applyng it directly to the skin may cause irritation. There is not enough evidence to determine if limonene supplements are safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women, so a doctors prescription is rocommended.

References

  1. a b c d Sun J. D-Limonene: safety and clinical applicationsAltern Med Rev. (2007)
  2. ^ Perez-Cacho PR, Rouseff RL. Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a reviewCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2008)
  3. ^ Limem-Ben Amor I, et al. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Phlomis speciesJ Ethnopharmacol. (2009)
  4. ^ Acharya A, et al. Chemopreventive properties of indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane and other constituents of cardamom against carcinogenesisRecent Pat Food Nutr Agric. (2010)
  5. ^ Satomi Y, et al. Production of the monoterpene limonene and modulation of apoptosis-related proteins in embryonic-mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells by introduction of the limonene synthase gene isolated from Japanese catnip (Schizonepeta tenuifolia)Biotechnol Appl Biochem. (2009)
  6. ^ Hyatt DC, et al. Structure of limonene synthase, a simple model for terpenoid cyclase catalysisProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2007)
  7. ^ Crowell PL, et al. Human metabolism of the experimental cancer therapeutic agent d-limoneneCancer Chemother Pharmacol. (1994)
  8. ^ Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T. Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-limonenes to respective carveols and perillyl alcohols by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomesDrug Metab Dispos. (2002)
  9. ^ Shimada T, Shindo M, Miyazawa M. Species differences in the metabolism of (+)- and (-)-limonenes and their metabolites, carveols and carvones, by cytochrome P450 enzymes in liver microsomes of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, monkeys, and humansDrug Metab Pharmacokinet. (2002)
  10. ^ Kodama R, et al. Studies on the metabolism of d-limonene (p-mentha-1,8-diene). IV. Isolation and characterization of new metabolites and species differences in metabolismXenobiotica. (1976)
  11. a b Vigushin DM, et al. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of D-limonene in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Clinical Trials CommitteeCancer Chemother Pharmacol. (1998)
  12. ^ Crowell PL, et al. Identification of metabolites of the antitumor agent d-limonene capable of inhibiting protein isoprenylation and cell growthCancer Chemother Pharmacol. (1992)
  13. a b c Pharmacokinetics of Perillic Acid in Humans after a Single Dose Administration of a Citrus Preparation Rich in d-Limonene Content.
  14. ^ Assessing Dietary D-Limonene Intake for Epidemiological Studies.
  15. ^ Dietary d-limonene alleviates insulin resistance and oxidative stress-induced liver injury in high-fat diet and L-NAME-treated rats.
  16. ^ Miller JA, et al. Adipose tissue accumulation of d-limonene with the consumption of a lemonade preparation rich in d-limonene contentNutr Cancer. (2010)
  17. ^ Miller JA, et al. Determination of d-limonene in adipose tissue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometryJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. (2008)
  18. ^ Metz SA, et al. Modulation of insulin secretion from normal rat islets by inhibitors of the post-translational modifications of GTP-binding proteinsBiochem J. (1993)
  19. ^ Park HM, et al. Limonene, a natural cyclic terpene, is an agonistic ligand for adenosine A(2A) receptorsBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2011)
  20. ^ Crowell PL. Monoterpenes in breast cancer chemopreventionBreast Cancer Res Treat. (1997)
  21. ^ Crowell PL. Prevention and therapy of cancer by dietary monoterpenesJ Nutr. (1999)
  22. ^ Tsuda H, et al. Cancer prevention by natural compoundsDrug Metab Pharmacokinet. (2004)
  23. ^ Gelb MH, et al. The inhibition of protein prenyltransferases by oxygenated metabolites of limonene and perillyl alcoholCancer Lett. (1995)
  24. ^ Effects of anticarcinogenic monoterpenes on phase II hepatic metabolizing enzymes.
  25. ^ Effects of monoterpenoids on in vivo DMBA-DNA adduct formation and on phase I hepatic metabolizing enzymes.
  26. ^ Flamm WG, Lehman-McKeeman LD. The human relevance of the renal tumor-inducing potential of d-limonene in male rats: implications for risk assessmentRegul Toxicol Pharmacol. (1991)