1. ^ Dietary supplement fact sheet: Iodine.
  2. a b Teas J, et al. Could dietary seaweed reverse the metabolic syndromeAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  3. ^ Iodine uptake in Laminariales involves extracellular, haloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of iodide.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Lee SM, et al. Iodine in British foods and dietsBr J Nutr. (1994)
  5. a b c Nagataki S. The average of dietary iodine intake due to the ingestion of seaweeds is 1.2 mg/day in JapanThyroid. (2008)
  6. a b c d e Teas J, et al. Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweedsThyroid. (2004)
  7. a b c d e Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis.
  8. a b c Teas J, et al. Seaweed and soy: companion foods in Asian cuisine and their effects on thyroid function in American womenJ Med Food. (2007)
  9. ^ Production and use of marine algae in Japan.
  10. ^ Aquaron R, et al. Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in human beingsCell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). (2002)
  11. a b Nishiyama S, et al. Transient hypothyroidism or persistent hyperthyrotropinemia in neonates born to mothers with excessive iodine intakeThyroid. (2004)
  12. ^ GREER MA, ASTWOOD EB. The antithyroid effect of certain foods in man as determined with radioactive iodineEndocrinology. (1948)
  13. ^ Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiencyEndocr Rev. (2009)
  14. ^ Doerge DR, Chang HC. Inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by soy isoflavones, in vitro and in vivoJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. (2002)
  15. ^ Rose M, et al. Bromine and iodine in 1997 UK total diet study samplesJ Environ Monit. (2001)
  16. ^ Halogen speciation in the rat thyroid: Simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine by short-term INAA.
  17. ^ Ishizuki Y, Yamauchi K, Miura Y. Transient thyrotoxicosis induced by Japanese kombuNihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. (1989)
  18. ^ Konno N, et al. Association between dietary iodine intake and prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the coastal regions of JapanJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1994)
  19. a b Suzuki H, et al. “Endemic coast goitre” in Hokkaido, JapanActa Endocrinol (Copenh). (1965)
  20. ^ Tajiri J, et al. Studies of hypothyroidism in patients with high iodine intakeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1986)
  21. ^ Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Erythrosine (E 127) as a food additive.
  22. ^ Patil VP, Kulkarni AP, Jacques T. Iodine induced thyrotoxicosis following povidine-iodine dressings: a case reportCrit Care Resusc. (2003)
  23. ^ Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination.
  24. a b Malasanos T, et al. Iodine deficiency, iodine content of salt and knowledge of iodine supplementation in the Dominican RepublicJ Trop Pediatr. (2007)
  25. ^ Nepal AK, et al. Household salt iodine content estimation with the use of rapid test kits and iodometric titration methodsJ Clin Diagn Res. (2013)
  26. ^ The effects of oral iodized oil on intelligence, thyroid status, and somatic growth in school-age children from an area of endemic goiter.
  27. ^ Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM, Tomkins A. Cognitive and motor functions of iodine-deficient but euthyroid children in Bangladesh do not benefit from iodized poppy seed oil (Lipiodol)J Nutr. (2001)
  28. a b c d Trumbo P, et al. Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zincJ Am Diet Assoc. (2001)
  29. a b Semba RD, Delange F. Iodine in human milk: perspectives for infant healthNutr Rev. (2001)
  30. a b Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association, et al. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid AssociationThyroid. (2006)
  31. ^ Recommended iodine levels in salt and guidelines for monitoring their adequacy and effectiveness.
  32. a b c d e f Mulrine HM, et al. Breast-milk iodine concentration declines over the first 6 mo postpartum in iodine-deficient womenAm J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  33. ^ Nagataki S, Shizume K, Nakao K. Thyroid function in chronic excess iodide ingestion: comparison of thyroidal absolute iodine uptake and degradation of thyroxine in euthyroid Japanese subjectsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1967)
  34. a b Matsumura Y. Nutrition trends in JapanAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  35. ^ Joshinaga J, et al. Certified reference material for analytical quality assurance of minor and trace elements in food and related matrixes based on a typical Japanese diet: interlaboratory studyJ AOAC Int. (2001)
  36. ^ Iso H, et al. Frequency of food intake and estimated nutrient intake among men and women: the JACC StudyJ Epidemiol. (2005)
  38. a b Hetzel BS. Eliminating iodine deficiency disorders–the role of the International Council in the global partnershipBull World Health Organ. (2002)
  39. ^ Plantin-Carrenard E, Beaudeux J, Foglietti M. Physiopathology of iodine: current interest of its measurement in biological fluidsAnn Biol Clin (Paris). (2000)
  40. ^ Delange F. Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damagePostgrad Med J. (2001)
  41. ^ Santiago-Fernandez P, et al. Intelligence quotient and iodine intake: a cross-sectional study in childrenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2004)
  42. ^ Hetzel BS, Potter BJ, Dulberg EM. The iodine deficiency disorders: nature, pathogenesis and epidemiologyWorld Rev Nutr Diet. (1990)
  43. ^ Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination.
  44. ^ Pharoah PO, Buttfield IH, Hetzel BS. Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancyLancet. (1971)
  45. ^ Bürgi H, Supersaxo Z, Selz B. Iodine deficiency diseases in Switzerland one hundred years after Theodor Kocher’s survey: a historical review with some new goitre prevalence dataActa Endocrinol (Copenh). (1990)
  46. ^ Iodine and Neuropsychological Development.
  47. ^ A meta-analysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development.
  48. a b c Taga I, et al. Youth of West Cameroon are at high risk of developing IDD due to low dietary iodine and high dietary thiocyanateAfr Health Sci. (2008)
  49. ^ Draper A, et al. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplementsBr J Nutr. (1993)
  50. ^ Iodine status in vegans consuming a living food diet.
  51. ^ Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique.
  52. ^ Remer T, Neubert A, Manz F. Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutritionBr J Nutr. (1999)
  53. ^ Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, et al. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegansAnn Nutr Metab. (2003)
  54. ^ Navarro AM, et al. Patients with severe bowel malabsorption do not have changes in iodine statusNutrition. (2005)
  56. ^ Zhao J, Chen Z, Maberly G. Iodine-rich drinking water of natural origin in ChinaLancet. (1998)
  57. ^ Li M, et al. Endemic goitre in central China caused by excessive iodine intakeLancet. (1987)
  58. ^ Iodine intake and status in Iceland through a period of 60 years.
  59. a b c Zimmermann MB, et al. High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakesAm J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  60. ^ Hollowell JG, et al. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1998)
  61. a b Soriguer F, et al. Iodine intakes of 100-300 μg/d do not modify thyroid function and have modest anti-inflammatory effectsBr J Nutr. (2011)
  62. a b c d Paul T, et al. The effect of small increases in dietary iodine on thyroid function in euthyroid subjectsMetabolism. (1988)
  63. a b Gardner DF, Centor RM, Utiger RD. Effects of low dose oral iodide supplementation on thyroid function in normal menClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1988)
  64. a b Chow CC, et al. Effect of low dose iodide supplementation on thyroid function in potentially susceptible subjects: are dietary iodide levels in Britain acceptableClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1991)
  65. a b Saberi M, Utiger RD. Augmentation of thyrotropin responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone following small decreases in serum thyroid hormone concentrationsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1975)
  66. a b Jubiz W, Carlile S, Lagerquist LD. Serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels in humans receiving chronic potassium iodideJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1977)
  67. ^ Control of Thyroid Hormone Secretion in Normal Subjects Receiving Iodides.
  68. ^ Alikaşifoğlu A, Ozön A, Yordam N. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in severe iodine deficiencyTurk J Pediatr. (2002)
  69. ^ Wan Nazaimoon WM, et al. Effects of iodine deficiency on insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels and height attainment in malnourished childrenClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1996)
  70. ^ van den Briel T, et al. Mild iodine deficiency is associated with elevated hearing thresholds in children in BeninEur J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  71. ^ Pharoah P, Buttfield IH, Hetzel BS. Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancyInt J Epidemiol. (2012)
  72. ^ Pharoah PO, Connolly KJ. A controlled trial of iodinated oil for the prevention of endemic cretinism: a long-term follow-upInt J Epidemiol. (1987)
  73. ^ Delange F. Administration of iodized oil during pregnancy: a summary of the published evidenceBull World Health Organ. (1996)
  74. ^ Luton D, et al. Iodine deficiency in northern Paris area: impact on fetal thyroid mensurationPLoS One. (2011)
  75. ^ Dorea JG. Iodine nutrition and breast feedingJ Trace Elem Med Biol. (2002)
  76. ^ Tonacchera M, et al. Relative potencies and additivity of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide on the inhibition of radioactive iodide uptake by the human sodium iodide symporterThyroid. (2004)
  77. ^ Spitzweg C, Heufelder AE, Morris JC. Thyroid iodine transportThyroid. (2000)
  78. ^ Dohán O, et al. The sodium/iodide Symporter (NIS): characterization, regulation, and medical significanceEndocr Rev. (2003)
  79. a b Hughes K, Eastman C. Goitre – causes, investigation and managementAust Fam Physician. (2012)
  80. ^ Demirel F, et al. Effect of iodine supplementation on goiter prevalence among the pediatric population in a severely iodine deficient areaJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. (2004)
  81. ^ Erdoğan MF, et al. More than a decade of iodine prophylaxis is needed to eradicate goiter among school age children in a moderately iodine-deficient regionThyroid. (2009)
  82. ^ WOLFF J, CHAIKOFF IL. Plasma inorganic iodide as a homeostatic regulator of thyroid functionJ Biol Chem. (1948)
  83. ^ WOLFF J, CHAIKOFF IL, et al. The temporary nature of the inhibitory action of excess iodine on organic iodine synthesis in the normal thyroidEndocrinology. (1949)
  85. ^ GALTON VA, PITT-RIVERS R. The effect of excessive iodine on the thyroid of the ratEndocrinology. (1959)
  86. ^ Fradkin JE, Wolff J. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosisMedicine (Baltimore). (1983)
  87. a b Müssig K, et al. Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis after ingestion of kelp-containing teaJ Gen Intern Med. (2006)
  88. ^ Markou K, et al. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidismThyroid. (2001)
  89. ^ Rhee SS, et al. High iodine content of Korean seaweed soup: a health risk for lactating women and their infantsThyroid. (2011)
  90. ^ Shetty KR, Duthie EH Jr. Thyrotoxicosis induced by topical iodine applicationArch Intern Med. (1990)