Iodine, Iodide

It’s important to get enough iodine in the diet. It regulates hormones, fetal development, and more. Also called iodide, iodine is a type of mineral that’s naturally found in the earth’s soil and ocean waters. Many salt water and plant-based foods contain iodine, and this mineral is most-widely available in iodized salt.


  • Origin Mineral
  • Source Itself
  • Type Mineral

Nutritional Support

The concept of healthy nutrition involves a good functioning and homeostasis of all systems and organs of the body, in order to prevent diseases and dysfunctions. The substances consumed for this purpose help general health because they are essential nutrients that have wide functionality in many areas of the body, influencing inflammatory signaling and metabolic pathways that are strongly relevant to most major health problems.
  • Nutrient Supplementation

    The metabolism of nutrients (absorption and different uses for each molecule) is highly linked to the body's vital functions. All the vitamins and minerals are essencial for the whole functioning of cells, hormones, metabolism, etc. When in deprivation of any nutrient, the body starts to show illnesses that can be treated with the right supplementation.
  • Toxicity Toxic in high doses
  • Side effects Goitre, Hormonal Disturbs
  • Warnings Thyroid Disorders, Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism

Why be Careful

Both iodine deficiency as well as iodine excess may cause goitre


  1. ^ Dietary supplement fact sheet: Iodine.
  2. a b Teas J, et al. Could dietary seaweed reverse the metabolic syndromeAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  3. ^ Iodine uptake in Laminariales involves extracellular, haloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of iodide.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Lee SM, et al. Iodine in British foods and dietsBr J Nutr. (1994)
  5. a b c Nagataki S. The average of dietary iodine intake due to the ingestion of seaweeds is 1.2 mg/day in JapanThyroid. (2008)
  6. a b c d e Teas J, et al. Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweedsThyroid. (2004)
  7. a b c d e Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis.
  8. a b c Teas J, et al. Seaweed and soy: companion foods in Asian cuisine and their effects on thyroid function in American womenJ Med Food. (2007)
  9. ^ Production and use of marine algae in Japan.
  10. ^ Aquaron R, et al. Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in human beingsCell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). (2002)
  11. a b Nishiyama S, et al. Transient hypothyroidism or persistent hyperthyrotropinemia in neonates born to mothers with excessive iodine intakeThyroid. (2004)
  12. ^ GREER MA, ASTWOOD EB. The antithyroid effect of certain foods in man as determined with radioactive iodineEndocrinology. (1948)
  13. ^ Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiencyEndocr Rev. (2009)
  14. ^ Doerge DR, Chang HC. Inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by soy isoflavones, in vitro and in vivoJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. (2002)
  15. ^ Rose M, et al. Bromine and iodine in 1997 UK total diet study samplesJ Environ Monit. (2001)
  16. ^ Halogen speciation in the rat thyroid: Simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine by short-term INAA.
  17. ^ Ishizuki Y, Yamauchi K, Miura Y. Transient thyrotoxicosis induced by Japanese kombuNihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi. (1989)
  18. ^ Konno N, et al. Association between dietary iodine intake and prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the coastal regions of JapanJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1994)
  19. a b Suzuki H, et al. “Endemic coast goitre” in Hokkaido, JapanActa Endocrinol (Copenh). (1965)
  20. ^ Tajiri J, et al. Studies of hypothyroidism in patients with high iodine intakeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1986)
  21. ^ Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Erythrosine (E 127) as a food additive.
  22. ^ Patil VP, Kulkarni AP, Jacques T. Iodine induced thyrotoxicosis following povidine-iodine dressings: a case reportCrit Care Resusc. (2003)
  23. ^ Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination.
  24. a b Malasanos T, et al. Iodine deficiency, iodine content of salt and knowledge of iodine supplementation in the Dominican RepublicJ Trop Pediatr. (2007)
  25. ^ Nepal AK, et al. Household salt iodine content estimation with the use of rapid test kits and iodometric titration methodsJ Clin Diagn Res. (2013)
  26. ^ The effects of oral iodized oil on intelligence, thyroid status, and somatic growth in school-age children from an area of endemic goiter.
  27. ^ Huda SN, Grantham-McGregor SM, Tomkins A. Cognitive and motor functions of iodine-deficient but euthyroid children in Bangladesh do not benefit from iodized poppy seed oil (Lipiodol)J Nutr. (2001)
  28. a b c d Trumbo P, et al. Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zincJ Am Diet Assoc. (2001)
  29. a b Semba RD, Delange F. Iodine in human milk: perspectives for infant healthNutr Rev. (2001)
  30. a b Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association, et al. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid AssociationThyroid. (2006)
  31. ^ Recommended iodine levels in salt and guidelines for monitoring their adequacy and effectiveness.
  32. a b c d e f Mulrine HM, et al. Breast-milk iodine concentration declines over the first 6 mo postpartum in iodine-deficient womenAm J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  33. ^ Nagataki S, Shizume K, Nakao K. Thyroid function in chronic excess iodide ingestion: comparison of thyroidal absolute iodine uptake and degradation of thyroxine in euthyroid Japanese subjectsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1967)
  34. a b Matsumura Y. Nutrition trends in JapanAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  35. ^ Joshinaga J, et al. Certified reference material for analytical quality assurance of minor and trace elements in food and related matrixes based on a typical Japanese diet: interlaboratory studyJ AOAC Int. (2001)
  36. ^ Iso H, et al. Frequency of food intake and estimated nutrient intake among men and women: the JACC StudyJ Epidemiol. (2005)
  38. a b Hetzel BS. Eliminating iodine deficiency disorders–the role of the International Council in the global partnershipBull World Health Organ. (2002)
  39. ^ Plantin-Carrenard E, Beaudeux J, Foglietti M. Physiopathology of iodine: current interest of its measurement in biological fluidsAnn Biol Clin (Paris). (2000)
  40. ^ Delange F. Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damagePostgrad Med J. (2001)
  41. ^ Santiago-Fernandez P, et al. Intelligence quotient and iodine intake: a cross-sectional study in childrenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2004)
  42. ^ Hetzel BS, Potter BJ, Dulberg EM. The iodine deficiency disorders: nature, pathogenesis and epidemiologyWorld Rev Nutr Diet. (1990)
  43. ^ Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination.
  44. ^ Pharoah PO, Buttfield IH, Hetzel BS. Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancyLancet. (1971)
  45. ^ Bürgi H, Supersaxo Z, Selz B. Iodine deficiency diseases in Switzerland one hundred years after Theodor Kocher’s survey: a historical review with some new goitre prevalence dataActa Endocrinol (Copenh). (1990)
  46. ^ Iodine and Neuropsychological Development.
  47. ^ A meta-analysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development.
  48. a b c Taga I, et al. Youth of West Cameroon are at high risk of developing IDD due to low dietary iodine and high dietary thiocyanateAfr Health Sci. (2008)
  49. ^ Draper A, et al. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplementsBr J Nutr. (1993)
  50. ^ Iodine status in vegans consuming a living food diet.
  51. ^ Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique.
  52. ^ Remer T, Neubert A, Manz F. Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutritionBr J Nutr. (1999)
  53. ^ Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, et al. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegansAnn Nutr Metab. (2003)
  54. ^ Navarro AM, et al. Patients with severe bowel malabsorption do not have changes in iodine statusNutrition. (2005)
  56. ^ Zhao J, Chen Z, Maberly G. Iodine-rich drinking water of natural origin in ChinaLancet. (1998)
  57. ^ Li M, et al. Endemic goitre in central China caused by excessive iodine intakeLancet. (1987)
  58. ^ Iodine intake and status in Iceland through a period of 60 years.
  59. a b c Zimmermann MB, et al. High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakesAm J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  60. ^ Hollowell JG, et al. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1998)
  61. a b Soriguer F, et al. Iodine intakes of 100-300 μg/d do not modify thyroid function and have modest anti-inflammatory effectsBr J Nutr. (2011)
  62. a b c d Paul T, et al. The effect of small increases in dietary iodine on thyroid function in euthyroid subjectsMetabolism. (1988)
  63. a b Gardner DF, Centor RM, Utiger RD. Effects of low dose oral iodide supplementation on thyroid function in normal menClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1988)
  64. a b Chow CC, et al. Effect of low dose iodide supplementation on thyroid function in potentially susceptible subjects: are dietary iodide levels in Britain acceptableClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1991)
  65. a b Saberi M, Utiger RD. Augmentation of thyrotropin responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone following small decreases in serum thyroid hormone concentrationsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1975)
  66. a b Jubiz W, Carlile S, Lagerquist LD. Serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels in humans receiving chronic potassium iodideJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1977)
  67. ^ Control of Thyroid Hormone Secretion in Normal Subjects Receiving Iodides.
  68. ^ Alikaşifoğlu A, Ozön A, Yordam N. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in severe iodine deficiencyTurk J Pediatr. (2002)
  69. ^ Wan Nazaimoon WM, et al. Effects of iodine deficiency on insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels and height attainment in malnourished childrenClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1996)
  70. ^ van den Briel T, et al. Mild iodine deficiency is associated with elevated hearing thresholds in children in BeninEur J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  71. ^ Pharoah P, Buttfield IH, Hetzel BS. Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancyInt J Epidemiol. (2012)
  72. ^ Pharoah PO, Connolly KJ. A controlled trial of iodinated oil for the prevention of endemic cretinism: a long-term follow-upInt J Epidemiol. (1987)
  73. ^ Delange F. Administration of iodized oil during pregnancy: a summary of the published evidenceBull World Health Organ. (1996)
  74. ^ Luton D, et al. Iodine deficiency in northern Paris area: impact on fetal thyroid mensurationPLoS One. (2011)
  75. ^ Dorea JG. Iodine nutrition and breast feedingJ Trace Elem Med Biol. (2002)
  76. ^ Tonacchera M, et al. Relative potencies and additivity of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide on the inhibition of radioactive iodide uptake by the human sodium iodide symporterThyroid. (2004)
  77. ^ Spitzweg C, Heufelder AE, Morris JC. Thyroid iodine transportThyroid. (2000)
  78. ^ Dohán O, et al. The sodium/iodide Symporter (NIS): characterization, regulation, and medical significanceEndocr Rev. (2003)
  79. a b Hughes K, Eastman C. Goitre – causes, investigation and managementAust Fam Physician. (2012)
  80. ^ Demirel F, et al. Effect of iodine supplementation on goiter prevalence among the pediatric population in a severely iodine deficient areaJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. (2004)
  81. ^ Erdoğan MF, et al. More than a decade of iodine prophylaxis is needed to eradicate goiter among school age children in a moderately iodine-deficient regionThyroid. (2009)
  82. ^ WOLFF J, CHAIKOFF IL. Plasma inorganic iodide as a homeostatic regulator of thyroid functionJ Biol Chem. (1948)
  83. ^ WOLFF J, CHAIKOFF IL, et al. The temporary nature of the inhibitory action of excess iodine on organic iodine synthesis in the normal thyroidEndocrinology. (1949)
  85. ^ GALTON VA, PITT-RIVERS R. The effect of excessive iodine on the thyroid of the ratEndocrinology. (1959)
  86. ^ Fradkin JE, Wolff J. Iodide-induced thyrotoxicosisMedicine (Baltimore). (1983)
  87. a b Müssig K, et al. Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis after ingestion of kelp-containing teaJ Gen Intern Med. (2006)
  88. ^ Markou K, et al. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidismThyroid. (2001)
  89. ^ Rhee SS, et al. High iodine content of Korean seaweed soup: a health risk for lactating women and their infantsThyroid. (2011)
  90. ^ Shetty KR, Duthie EH Jr. Thyrotoxicosis induced by topical iodine applicationArch Intern Med. (1990)