CDP-Choline

CDP-Choline, Citicoline, cytidine nucleotides

CDP-Choline is a brain reconstituting phospholipid, which has a protective action on the brain, as stimulates its phospholipid production and reduces its free fatty acids levels. It stimulates high choline concentrations in the body and is able to convert itself to uridine. This supplement is used to prevent or treat aging-associated memory or cognition deficiencies.

Nutraceutic

  • Origin Plant Based, Animal Product, Synthetic
  • Source Eggs, Meat, Fish, Peanuts, Walnuts, Brazil Nuts, Pecan Nut, Almonds, Hazelnut
  • Type Phospholipid, Neuro Precursor, Nootropic

Longevity & Prevention

To live longer is necessary to live well, meaning that overall well-being, healthy organs, a healthy brain and good habits are taken into consideration when it comes to longevity. All of those circumstances require a healthy lifestyle, which works directly in the prevention of illnesses or conditions that might negatively influence your health. There are a lot nutraceutics and supplements that can help the body to stay safe and sound, just as it should be.

Cognitive Function and Brain Health

Cognitive functions are brain skills divided into: memory, perception, language, executive functions, attention and praxis (ability to perform complex movements). These functions depend on healthy synapses and neurons, which require good overall brain functioning. Supplements can affect cognitive function directly or indirectly. Direct effects can alter or participate in neurotransmissions and influence the brain's energy metabolism. The indirect effects include hormonal changes that affect the brain, and improvements in cognitive disorders such as anxiety, depression and insomnia.
  • Memory

    Memory is the faculty by which the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information. It is a record of experience for guiding future action.
  • Cognition

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension. Cognitive actions include thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem-solving. These are higher-level functions of the brain and include language, imagination, perception, and planning.
  • Focus & Attention

    Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether considered subjective or objective.
  • Age Range Teenagers (13-19), Adults (20-59), Seniors (>60)
  • Toxicity May be toxic in high doses
  • Side effects Nausea, Diarrhea, Gastrointestinal Disturbs, Fish Odor
  • Warnings Pregnancy

Why be Careful

Choline supplementation at high doses may cause adverse health effects. Choline intake should be monitored by a physician if pregnant or nursing.

References

  1. a b c d Parisi V, et al. Cytidine-5′-diphosphocholine (citicoline) improves retinal and cortical responses in patients with glaucomaOphthalmology. (1999)
  2. ^ [No authors listed. Citicoline. MonographAltern Med Rev. (2008)
  3. ^ Bracken BK, et al. Eight weeks of citicoline treatment does not perturb sleep/wake cycles in cocaine-dependent adultsPharmacol Biochem Behav. (2011)
  4. a b c d Sarkar AK, et al. A rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantitation of choline, an active metabolite of citicoline: Application to in vivo pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study in Indian healthy male volunteersJ Pharm Biomed Anal. (2012)
  5. ^ Gibellini F, Smith TK. The Kennedy pathway–De novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholineIUBMB Life. (2010)
  6. ^ Vance JE, Vance DE. Phospholipid biosynthesis in mammalian cellsBiochem Cell Biol. (2004)
  7. a b c d Fagone P, Jackowski S. Phosphatidylcholine and the CDP-choline cycleBiochim Biophys Acta. (2013)
  8. ^ Aoyama C, Liao H, Ishidate K. Structure and function of choline kinase isoforms in mammalian cellsProg Lipid Res. (2004)
  9. ^ Wu G, Vance DE. Choline kinase and its functionBiochem Cell Biol. (2010)
  10. ^ Jansen SM, et al. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine from a phosphocholine precursor pool derived from the late endosomal/lysosomal degradation of sphingomyelinJ Biol Chem. (2001)
  11. ^ Jackowski S, Fagone P. CTP: Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase: paving the way from gene to membraneJ Biol Chem. (2005)
  12. ^ Cornell RB, Northwood IC. Regulation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase by amphitropism and relocalizationTrends Biochem Sci. (2000)
  13. ^ Kent C. Regulatory enzymes of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis: a personal perspectiveBiochim Biophys Acta. (2005)
  14. ^ Cornell RB. Cholinephosphotransferase from mammalian sourcesMethods Enzymol. (1992)
  15. ^ The enzymatic formation of lecithin from cytidine diphosphate choline and D-1,2-diglyceride.
  16. ^ Henneberry AL, Wistow G, McMaster CR. Cloning, genomic organization, and characterization of a human cholinephosphotransferaseJ Biol Chem. (2000)
  17. ^ Henneberry AL, McMaster CR. Cloning and expression of a human choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase: synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamineBiochem J. (1999)
  18. ^ Horibata Y, Hirabayashi Y. Identification and characterization of human ethanolaminephosphotransferase1J Lipid Res. (2007)
  19. a b c d e Wurtman RJ, et al. Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humansBiochem Pharmacol. (2000)
  20. a b Lopez G-Coviella I, et al. Metabolism of cytidine (5?)-diphosphocholine (cdp-choline) following oral and intravenous administration to the human and the ratNeurochem Int. (1987)
  21. ^ Galletti P, et al. Biochemical rationale for the use of CDPcholine in traumatic brain injury: pharmacokinetics of the orally administered drugJ Neurol Sci. (1991)
  22. ^ Weiss GB. Metabolism and actions of CDP-choline as an endogenous compound and administered exogenously as citicolineLife Sci. (1995)
  23. a b c Cansev M. Uridine and cytidine in the brain: their transport and utilizationBrain Res Rev. (2006)
  24. ^ Vásquez JV, Pinardi G. Vasomotor responses in the isolated perfused external and internal carotid vascular beds of the ratGen Pharmacol. (1992)
  25. ^ Edvinsson L, et al. Cholinergic mechanisms in pial vessels. Histochemistry, electron microscopy and pharmacologyZ Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat. (1972)
  26. ^ Iwayama T, Furness JB, Burnstock G. Dual adrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the cerebral arteries of the rat. An ultrastructural studyCirc Res. (1970)
  27. ^ Pinardi G, et al. Effects of CDP-choline on acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the perfused carotid vascular beds of the ratGen Pharmacol. (1994)
  28. ^ López-Coviella I, et al. Evidence that 5′-cytidinediphosphocholine can affect brain phospholipid composition by increasing choline and cytidine plasma levelsJ Neurochem. (1995)
  29. a b Cansev M, et al. Cardiovascular effects of CDP-choline and its metabolites: involvement of peripheral autonomic nervous systemEur J Pharmacol. (2007)
  30. a b Jochem J, et al. Involvement of the histaminergic system in cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine-induced reversal of critical haemorrhagic hypotension in ratsJ Physiol Pharmacol. (2010)
  31. a b Savci V, et al. Intravenously injected CDP-choline increases blood pressure and reverses hypotension in haemorrhagic shock: effect is mediated by central cholinergic activationEur J Pharmacol. (2003)
  32. a b Savci V, et al. Cardiovascular effects of intracerebroventricularly injected CDP-choline in normotensive and hypotensive animals: the involvement of cholinergic systemNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. (2002)
  33. a b c Alvarez XA, et al. Citicoline improves memory performance in elderly subjectsMethods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. (1997)
  34. ^ Silveri MM, et al. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopyNMR Biomed. (2008)
  35. ^ Killgore WD, et al. Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foodsInt J Eat Disord. (2010)
  36. a b Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women.
  37. ^ Rowley TJ, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of choline in a mouse model of postoperative painBr J Anaesth. (2010)
  38. ^ Yaksh TL, Dirksen R, Harty GJ. Antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected cholinomimetic drugs in the rat and catEur J Pharmacol. (1985)
  39. ^ Gurun MS, et al. The effect of peripherally administered CDP-choline in an acute inflammatory pain model: the role of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptorAnesth Analg. (2009)
  40. a b c Hamurtekin E, Gurun MS. The antinociceptive effects of centrally administered CDP-choline on acute pain models in rats: the involvement of cholinergic systemBrain Res. (2006)
  41. a b c Bagdas D, et al. The antihyperalgesic effect of cytidine-5′-diphosphate-choline in neuropathic and inflammatory pain modelsBehav Pharmacol. (2011)
  42. ^ Alkondon M, et al. Choline is a selective agonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat brain neuronsEur J Neurosci. (1997)
  43. ^ Bartolini A, et al. Role of muscarinic receptor subtypes in central antinociceptionBr J Pharmacol. (1992)
  44. ^ Houdi AA, et al. Nicotine-induced alteration in Tyr-Gly-Gly and Met-enkephalin in discrete brain nuclei reflects altered enkephalin neuron activityPeptides. (1991)
  45. ^ Zarrindast MR, Pazouki M, Nassiri-Rad S. Involvement of cholinergic and opioid receptor mechanisms in nicotine-induced antinociceptionPharmacol Toxicol. (1997)
  46. ^ Zarrindast MR, Nami AB, Farzin D. Nicotine potentiates morphine antinociception: a possible cholinergic mechanismEur Neuropsychopharmacol. (1996)
  47. a b c d Hamurtekin E, Bagdas D, Gurun MS. Possible involvement of supraspinal opioid and GABA receptors in CDP-choline-induced antinociception in acute pain models in ratsNeurosci Lett. (2007)
  48. ^ Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF, Dempsey RJ. Citicoline: neuroprotective mechanisms in cerebral ischemiaJ Neurochem. (2002)
  49. a b Plataras C, Tsakiris S, Angelogianni P. Effect of CDP-choline on brain acetylcholinesterase and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in adult ratsClin Biochem. (2000)
  50. ^ Rao AM, Hatcher JF, Dempsey RJ. Lipid alterations in transient forebrain ischemia: possible new mechanisms of CDP-choline neuroprotectionJ Neurochem. (2000)
  51. ^ Dorman RV, Dabrowiecki Z, Horrocks LA. Effects of CDPcholine and CDPethanolamine on the alterations in rat brain lipid metabolism induced by global ischemiaJ Neurochem. (1983)
  52. ^ Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF, Dempsey RJ. Effects of citicoline on phospholipid and glutathione levels in transient cerebral ischemiaStroke. (2001)
  53. a b Krupinski J, et al. CDP-choline reduces pro-caspase and cleaved caspase-3 expression, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and specific PARP-cleaved products of caspase activation following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the ratNeuropharmacology. (2002)
  54. a b Gutiérrez-Fernández M, et al. CDP-choline treatment induces brain plasticity markers expression in experimental animal strokeNeurochem Int. (2012)
  55. ^ Sahin S, et al. Effects of citicoline used alone and in combination with mild hypothermia on apoptosis induced by focal cerebral ischemia in ratsJ Clin Neurosci. (2010)
  56. ^ Andersen M, et al. Effects of citicoline combined with thrombolytic therapy in a rat embolic stroke modelStroke. (1999)
  57. ^ Alonso de Leciñana M, et al. Effect of combined therapy with thrombolysis and citicoline in a rat model of embolic strokeJ Neurol Sci. (2006)
  58. ^ Schäbitz WR, et al. The effects of prolonged treatment with citicoline in temporary experimental focal ischemiaJ Neurol Sci. (1996)
  59. ^ Schäbitz WR, et al. Synergistic effects of a combination of low-dose basic fibroblast growth factor and citicoline after temporary experimental focal ischemiaStroke. (1999)
  60. a b Hurtado O, et al. Citicoline (CDP-choline) increases Sirtuin1 expression concomitant to neuroprotection in experimental strokeJ Neurochem. (2013)
  61. a b Dixon CE, Ma X, Marion DW. Effects of CDP-choline treatment on neurobehavioral deficits after TBI and on hippocampal and neocortical acetylcholine releaseJ Neurotrauma. (1997)
  62. ^ Zafonte RD, et al. Effect of citicoline on functional and cognitive status among patients with traumatic brain injury: Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment Trial (COBRIT)JAMA. (2012)
  63. ^ Dávalos A, et al. Oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: an individual patient data pooling analysis of clinical trialsStroke. (2002)
  64. ^ Saver JL. Citicoline: update on a promising and widely available agent for neuroprotection and neurorepairRev Neurol Dis. (2008)
  65. ^ Dávalos A, et al. Citicoline in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled study (ICTUS trial)Lancet. (2012)
  66. ^ Amenta F, Tayebati SK. Pathways of acetylcholine synthesis, transport and release as targets for treatment of adult-onset cognitive dysfunctionCurr Med Chem. (2008)
  67. ^ Wang L, Albrecht MA, Wurtman RJ. Dietary supplementation with uridine-5′-monophosphate (UMP), a membrane phosphatide precursor, increases acetylcholine level and release in striatum of aged ratBrain Res. (2007)
  68. ^ Tayebati SK, et al. Effect of choline-containing phospholipids on brain cholinergic transporters in the ratJ Neurol Sci. (2011)
  69. ^ Tomassoni D, et al. Effects of cholinergic enhancing drugs on cholinergic transporters in the brain and peripheral blood lymphocytes of spontaneously hypertensive ratsCurr Alzheimer Res. (2012)
  70. a b c Giménez R, Raïch J, Aguilar J. Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging miceBr J Pharmacol. (1991)
  71. a b Ilcol YO, et al. Intraperitoneal administration of choline increases serum glucose in rat: involvement of the sympathoadrenal systemHorm Metab Res. (2002)
  72. a b Ilcol YO, et al. Intraperitoneal administration of CDP-choline and its cholinergic and pyrimidinergic metabolites induce hyperglycemia in rats: involvement of the sympathoadrenal systemArch Physiol Biochem. (2007)
  73. ^ Cansev M, et al. Peripheral administration of CDP-choline, phosphocholine or choline increases plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrationsAuton Autacoid Pharmacol. (2008)
  74. ^ Saligaut C, et al. Effects of hypoxia and cytidine (5′) diphosphocholine on the concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine and metabolites in rat hypothalamus and striatumArch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. (1987)
  75. a b c d Tayebati SK, et al. Modulation of monoaminergic transporters by choline-containing phospholipids in rat brainCNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. (2013)
  76. ^ Mechanism of action of CDP-choline in parkinsonism.
  77. ^ Wang L, et al. Dietary uridine-5′-monophosphate supplementation increases potassium-evoked dopamine release and promotes neurite outgrowth in aged ratsJ Mol Neurosci. (2005)
  78. a b c Agut J, Ortiz JA, Wurtman RJ. Cytidine (5′)diphosphocholine modulates dopamine K(+)-evoked release in striatum measured by microdialysisAnn N Y Acad Sci. (2000)
  79. a b c d Shibuya M, et al. Effects of CDP-choline on striatal dopamine level and behavior in ratsJpn J Pharmacol. (1981)
  80. ^ Dusseau JW, Hutchins PM. Stimulation of arteriolar number by salbutamol in spontaneously hypertensive ratsAm J Physiol. (1979)
  81. ^ Effects of apomorphine on the in vivo release of dopamine and its metabolites, studied by brain dialysis.
  82. ^ Radad K, et al. CDP-choline reduces dopaminergic cell loss induced by MPP(+) and glutamate in primary mesencephalic cell cultureInt J Neurosci. (2007)
  83. ^ Barrachina M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of citicoline in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cellsJ Neurol Sci. (2003)
  84. ^ Pulvirenti L, Koob GF. Dopamine receptor agonists, partial agonists and psychostimulant addictionTrends Pharmacol Sci. (1994)
  85. ^ Walsh SL, et al. Fluoxetine alters the effects of intravenous cocaine in humansJ Clin Psychopharmacol. (1994)
  86. ^ Renshaw PF, et al. Short-term treatment with citicoline (CDP-choline) attenuates some measures of craving in cocaine-dependent subjects: a preliminary reportPsychopharmacology (Berl). (1999)
  87. ^ Brown ES, Gorman AR, Hynan LS. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citicoline add-on therapy in outpatients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependenceJ Clin Psychopharmacol. (2007)
  88. ^ Licata SC, et al. Effects of daily treatment with citicoline: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cocaine-dependent volunteersJ Addict Med. (2011)
  89. ^ Lukas SE, et al. Effects of short-term citicoline treatment on acute cocaine intoxication and cardiovascular effectsPsychopharmacology (Berl). (2001)
  90. a b Teather LA, Wurtman RJ. Dietary cytidine (5′)-diphosphocholine supplementation protects against development of memory deficits in aging ratsProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2003)
  91. ^ Petkov VD, et al. Effect of CDP-choline on learning and memory processes in rodentsMethods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. (1992)
  92. a b Mosharrof AH, Petkov VD. Effects of citicholine and of the combination citicholine + piracetam on the memory (experiments on mice)Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. (1990)
  93. ^ Petkov VD, Mosharrof AH, Petkov VV. Comparative studies on the effects of the nootropic drugs adafenoxate, meclofenoxate and piracetam, and of citicholine on scopolamine-impaired memory, exploratory behavior and physical capabilities (experiments on rats and mice)Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. (1988)
  94. ^ Gallagher M, Pelleymounter MA. Spatial learning deficits in old rats: a model for memory decline in the agedNeurobiol Aging. (1988)
  95. ^ Rapp PR, Rosenberg RA, Gallagher M. An evaluation of spatial information processing in aged ratsBehav Neurosci. (1987)
  96. ^ Albert M. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological changes in healthy adult humans across the age rangeNeurobiol Aging. (1993)
  97. ^ Rylett RJ, et al. Acetylcholine synthesis and release following continuous intracerebral administration of NGF in adult and aged Fischer-344 ratsJ Neurosci. (1993)
  98. ^ Ando S, et al. Turnover of synaptic membranes: age-related changes and modulation by dietary restrictionJ Neurosci Res. (2002)
  99. ^ Salvador GA, López FM, Giusto NM. Age-related changes in central nervous system phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activityJ Neurosci Res. (2002)
  100. ^ Teather LA, Wurtman RJ. Chronic administration of UMP ameliorates the impairment of hippocampal-dependent memory in impoverished ratsJ Nutr. (2006)
  101. ^ Mosharrof AH, Petkov VD, Petkov VV. Effects of meclofenoxate and citicholine on learning and memory in aged ratsActa Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. (1987)
  102. ^ Spiers PA, et al. Citicoline improves verbal memory in agingArch Neurol. (1996)
  103. ^ Takasaki K, et al. Neuroprotective effects of citidine-5-diphosphocholine on impaired spatial memory in a rat model of cerebrovascular dementiaJ Pharmacol Sci. (2011)
  104. a b Ilcol YO, et al. Choline increases serum insulin in rat when injected intraperitoneally and augments basal and stimulated aceylcholine release from the rat minced pancreas in vitroEur J Biochem. (2003)
  105. ^ Cansev M, et al. Choline, CDP-choline or phosphocholine increases plasma glucagon in rats: involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous systemEur J Pharmacol. (2008)
  106. ^ Rejdak R, et al. Citicoline treatment increases retinal dopamine content in rabbitsOphthalmic Res. (2002)
  107. a b Parisi V, et al. Evidence of the neuroprotective role of citicoline in glaucoma patientsProg Brain Res. (2008)
  108. a b c d Cavun S, Savci V. CDP-choline increases plasma ACTH and potentiates the stimulated release of GH, TSH and LH: the cholinergic involvementFundam Clin Pharmacol. (2004)