1. a b α-lipoic acid can improve endothelial dysfunction in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.
  2. ^ Lipoic Acid Biosynthesis:  LipA Is an Iron−Sulfur Protein.
  3. ^ Akiba S, et al. Assay of protein-bound lipoic acid in tissues by a new enzymatic methodAnal Biochem. (1998)
  4. a b c Wollin SD, Jones PJ. Alpha-lipoic acid and cardiovascular diseaseJ Nutr. (2003)
  5. a b c d e f Moini H, Packer L, Saris NE. Antioxidant and prooxidant activities of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acidToxicol Appl Pharmacol. (2002)
  6. a b c d e f g h Merry BJ, Kirk AJ, Goyns MH. Dietary lipoic acid supplementation can mimic or block the effect of dietary restriction on life spanMech Ageing Dev. (2008)
  7. ^ Satoh S, et al. Selective and sensitive determination of lipoyllysine (protein-bound alpha-lipoic acid) in biological specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detectionAnal Chim Acta. (2008)
  8. ^ Backman-Gullers B, et al. Studies on lipoamidase: characterization of the enzyme in human serum and breast milkClin Chim Acta. (1990)
  9. ^ Hiltunen JK, et al. Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis type II: more than just fatty acidsJ Biol Chem. (2009)
  10. a b c d e f g Shay KP, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potentialBiochim Biophys Acta. (2009)
  11. ^ Reed LJ. From lipoic acid to multi-enzyme complexesProtein Sci. (1998)
  12. ^ Park CH, et al. Improved efficacy of appetite suppression by lipoic acid particles prepared by nanocomminutionDrug Dev Ind Pharm. (2009)
  13. ^ The Chemistry of 1,2-Dithiolane (Trimethylene Disulfide) As a Model for the Primary Quantum Conversion Act in Photosynthesis.
  14. ^ Kinetics of the thiol-disulfide exchange. II. Oxygen-promoted free-radical exchange between aromatic thiols and disulfides.
  15. ^ Saito G, Swanson JA, Lee KD. Drug delivery strategy utilizing conjugation via reversible disulfide linkages: role and site of cellular reducing activitiesAdv Drug Deliv Rev. (2003)
  16. ^ Interrelationships of Lipoic Acids.
  17. a b Jones W, et al. Uptake, recycling, and antioxidant actions of alpha-lipoic acid in endothelial cellsFree Radic Biol Med. (2002)
  18. ^ Preparation and use of salts of the pure enantiomers of alpha-lipoic acid.
  19. ^ Dosage forms containing thioctic acid or solid salts of thioctic acid with improved release and bioavailability.
  20. ^ Takaishi N, et al. Transepithelial transport of alpha-lipoic acid across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayersJ Agric Food Chem. (2007)
  21. ^ Prasad PD, et al. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding a mammalian sodium-dependent vitamin transporter mediating the uptake of pantothenate, biotin, and lipoateJ Biol Chem. (1998)
  22. ^ Balamurugan K, Vaziri ND, Said HM. Biotin uptake by human proximal tubular epithelial cells: cellular and molecular aspectsAm J Physiol Renal Physiol. (2005)
  23. ^ Teichert J, et al. Investigations on the pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy volunteersInt J Clin Pharmacol Ther. (1998)
  24. a b Teichert J, et al. Plasma kinetics, metabolism, and urinary excretion of alpha-lipoic acid following oral administration in healthy volunteersJ Clin Pharmacol. (2003)
  25. ^ Carlson DA, et al. The plasma pharmacokinetics of R-(+)-lipoic acid administered as sodium R-(+)-lipoate to healthy human subjectsAltern Med Rev. (2007)
  26. a b Breithaupt-Grögler K, et al. Dose-proportionality of oral thioctic acid–coincidence of assessments via pooled plasma and individual dataEur J Pharm Sci. (1999)
  27. a b Harrison EH, McCormick DB. The metabolism of dl-(1,6-14C)lipoic acid in the ratArch Biochem Biophys. (1974)
  28. ^ Panigrahi M, et al. alpha-Lipoic acid protects against reperfusion injury following cerebral ischemia in ratsBrain Res. (1996)
  29. a b Arivazhagan P, et al. Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in various brain regions of aged ratsExp Gerontol. (2002)
  30. ^ Mignini F, et al. Single dose bioavailability and pharmacokinetic study of a innovative formulation of α-lipoic acid (ALA600) in healthy volunteersMinerva Med. (2011)
  31. a b Schupke H, et al. New metabolic pathways of alpha-lipoic acidDrug Metab Dispos. (2001)
  32. ^ Ou P, Tritschler HJ, Wolff SP. Thioctic (lipoic) acid: a therapeutic metal-chelating antioxidantBiochem Pharmacol. (1995)
  33. a b Cakatay U, et al. Postmitotic tissue selenium and manganese levels in alpha-lipoic acid-supplemented aged ratsChem Biol Interact. (2008)
  34. ^ Suh JH, et al. Dietary supplementation with (R)-alpha-lipoic acid reverses the age-related accumulation of iron and depletion of antioxidants in the rat cerebral cortexRedox Rep. (2005)
  35. a b Bush AI. Metal complexing agents as therapies for Alzheimer’s diseaseNeurobiol Aging. (2002)
  36. ^ McCarty MF, Barroso-Aranda J, Contreras F. The “rejuvenatory” impact of lipoic acid on mitochondrial function in aging rats may reflect induction and activation of PPAR-gamma coactivator-1alphaMed Hypotheses. (2009)
  37. a b Hagen TM, et al. (R)-alpha-lipoic acid-supplemented old rats have improved mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and increased metabolic rateFASEB J. (1999)
  38. a b Liu J, et al. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acidProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2002)
  39. ^ Liu J, Killilea DW, Ames BN. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acidProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2002)
  40. a b c Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress.
  41. ^ Arivazhagan P, Ramanathan K, Panneerselvam C. Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in mitochondria of aged ratsJ Nutr Biochem. (2001)
  42. ^ Arivazhagan P, Ramanathan K, Panneerselvam C. Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on mitochondrial enzymes in aged ratsChem Biol Interact. (2001)
  43. ^ Freisleben HJ, et al. Influence of selegiline and lipoic acid on the life expectancy of immunosuppressed miceArzneimittelforschung. (1997)
  44. a b c d e f Kim MS, et al. Anti-obesity effects of alpha-lipoic acid mediated by suppression of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinaseNat Med. (2004)
  45. a b c Cheng PY, et al. Reciprocal effects of α-lipoic acid on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity in obesity induced by ovariectomy in ratsMenopause. (2011)
  46. a b c d Wang Y, et al. alpha-Lipoic acid increases energy expenditure by enhancing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha signaling in the skeletal muscle of aged miceMetabolism. (2010)
  47. a b c d e Timmers S, et al. Prevention of high-fat diet-induced muscular lipid accumulation in rats by alpha lipoic acid is not mediated by AMPK activationJ Lipid Res. (2010)
  48. a b c Fernández-Galilea M, et al. Effects of lipoic acid on apelin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high-fat fed ratsJ Physiol Biochem. (2011)
  49. a b c El Midaoui A, et al. Impact of α-lipoic acid on liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in insulin-resistant ratsCan J Physiol Pharmacol. (2011)
  50. a b c Prieto-Hontoria PL, et al. Lipoic acid prevents body weight gain induced by a high fat diet in rats: effects on intestinal sugar transportJ Physiol Biochem. (2009)
  51. ^ Seo EY, Ha AW, Kim WK. α-Lipoic acid reduced weight gain and improved the lipid profile in rats fed with high fat dietNutr Res Pract. (2012)
  52. a b c d Prieto-Hontoria PL, et al. Lipoic acid inhibits leptin secretion and Sp1 activity in adipocytesMol Nutr Food Res. (2011)
  53. a b c Gupte AA, et al. Lipoic acid increases heat shock protein expression and inhibits stress kinase activation to improve insulin signaling in skeletal muscle from high-fat-fed ratsJ Appl Physiol. (2009)
  54. a b c Butler JA, Hagen TM, Moreau R. Lipoic acid improves hypertriglyceridemia by stimulating triacylglycerol clearance and downregulating liver triacylglycerol secretionArch Biochem Biophys. (2009)
  55. a b Prieto-Hontoria PL, et al. Effects of lipoic acid on AMPK and adiponectin in adipose tissue of low- and high-fat-fed ratsEur J Nutr. (2012)
  56. ^ Valdecantos MP, et al. Lipoic acid administration prevents nonalcoholic steatosis linked to long-term high-fat feeding by modulating mitochondrial functionJ Nutr Biochem. (2012)
  57. ^ Valdecantos MP, et al. Lipoic Acid Improves Mitochondrial Function in Nonalcoholic Steatosis Through the Stimulation of Sirtuin 1 and Sirtuin 3Obesity (Silver Spring). (2012)
  58. a b Kim E, et al. A preliminary investigation of alpha-lipoic acid treatment of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in patients with schizophreniaJ Clin Psychopharmacol. (2008)
  59. ^ Zhang L, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid protects rat cortical neurons against cell death induced by amyloid and hydrogen peroxide through the Akt signalling pathwayNeurosci Lett. (2001)
  60. ^ Poon HF, et al. Proteomic analysis of specific brain proteins in aged SAMP8 mice treated with alpha-lipoic acid: implications for aging and age-related neurodegenerative disordersNeurochem Int. (2005)
  61. ^ Farr SA, et al. The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 miceJ Neurochem. (2003)
  62. ^ Sharma M, Gupta YK. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of cognitive impairment in ratsEur Neuropsychopharmacol. (2003)
  63. ^ Richard MJ, et al. Cellular mechanisms by which lipoic acid confers protection during the early stages of cerebral ischemia: a possible role for calciumNeurosci Res. (2011)
  64. ^ Lee WY, et al. Molecular mechanisms of lipoic acid modulation of T-type calcium channels in pain pathwayJ Neurosci. (2009)
  65. a b Wang SJ, Chen HH. Presynaptic mechanisms underlying the alpha-lipoic acid facilitation of glutamate exocytosis in rat cerebral cortex nerve terminalsNeurochem Int. (2007)
  66. a b Kleinkauf-Rocha J, et al. Lipoic acid increases glutamate uptake, glutamine synthetase activity and glutathione content in C6 astrocyte cell lineInt J Dev Neurosci. (2013)
  67. ^ Tang LH, Aizenman E. Allosteric modulation of the NMDA receptor by dihydrolipoic and lipoic acid in rat cortical neurons in vitroNeuron. (1993)
  68. ^ Stoll S, et al. The potent free radical scavenger alpha-lipoic acid improves memory in aged mice: putative relationship to NMDA receptor deficitsPharmacol Biochem Behav. (1993)
  69. ^ Han D, et al. Protection against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in C6 glial cells by thiol antioxidantsAm J Physiol. (1997)
  70. ^ Tirosh O, et al. Neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid and its positively charged amide analogueFree Radic Biol Med. (1999)
  71. ^ Kobayashi MS, Han D, Packer L. Antioxidants and herbal extracts protect HT-4 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cytotoxicityFree Radic Res. (2000)
  72. ^ Greenamyre JT, Garcia-Osuna M, Greene JG. The endogenous cofactors, thioctic acid and dihydrolipoic acid, are neuroprotective against NMDA and malonic acid lesions of striatumNeurosci Lett. (1994)
  73. a b Santos PS, et al. Lipoic acid effects on glutamate and taurine concentrations in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizuresArq Neuropsiquiatr. (2011)
  74. ^ de Freitas RM, et al. Lipoic acid alters amino acid neurotransmitters content in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizuresFundam Clin Pharmacol. (2011)
  75. ^ Patel MN, et al. Cyanide induces Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent release of glutamate from mouse brain slicesNeurosci Lett. (1991)
  76. ^ Sun P, et al. Modulation of the NMDA receptor by cyanide: enhancement of receptor-mediated responsesJ Pharmacol Exp Ther. (1997)
  77. ^ Abdel-Zaher AO, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid protects against potassium cyanide-induced seizures and mortalityExp Toxicol Pathol. (2011)
  78. a b c d e f Freitas RM, Jordán J, Feng D. Lipoic acid effects on monoaminergic system after pilocarpine-induced seizuresNeurosci Lett. (2010)
  79. a b c d Santos IM, et al. Alterations on monoamines concentration in rat hippocampus produced by lipoic acidArq Neuropsiquiatr. (2010)
  80. ^ Ferreira PM, Militão GC, Freitas RM. Lipoic acid effects on lipid peroxidation level, superoxide dismutase activity and monoamines concentration in rat hippocampusNeurosci Lett. (2009)
  81. ^ Ranieri M, et al. The use of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and rehabilitation in the treatment of back pain: effect on health-related quality of lifeInt J Immunopathol Pharmacol. (2009)
  82. ^ Di Geronimo G, et al. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with alpha-lipoic acidEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. (2009)
  83. ^ Bertolotto F, Massone A. Combination of alpha lipoic acid and superoxide dismutase leads to physiological and symptomatic improvements in diabetic neuropathyDrugs R D. (2012)
  84. a b c d Ziegler D, et al. Efficacy and safety of antioxidant treatment with α-lipoic acid over 4 years in diabetic polyneuropathy: the NATHAN 1 trialDiabetes Care. (2011)
  85. ^ Zechner R, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase and the lipolytic catabolism of cellular fat storesJ Lipid Res. (2009)
  86. a b c Kuo YT, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid induces adipose triglyceride lipase expression and decreases intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 cellsEur J Pharmacol. (2012)
  87. a b Park KG, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid decreases hepatic lipogenesis through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and AMPK-independent pathwaysHepatology. (2008)
  88. a b c d Kuhla A, et al. Prophylactic and abundant intake of α-lipoic acid causes hepatic steatosis and should be reconsidered in usage as an anti-aging drugBiofactors. (2016)
  89. ^ Yi X, et al. Reversal of obesity-induced hypertriglyceridemia by (R)-α-lipoic acid in ZDF (fa/fa) ratsBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2013)
  90. ^ Alkhouri N, Dixon LJ, Feldstein AE. Lipotoxicity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: not all lipids are created equalExpert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. (2009)
  91. ^ Browning JD, Horton JD. Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injuryJ Clin Invest. (2004)
  92. a b c d Koh EH, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic Acid on body weight in obese subjectsAm J Med. (2011)
  93. ^ Park HS, et al. Hsp72 functions as a natural inhibitory protein of c-Jun N-terminal kinaseEMBO J. (2001)
  94. ^ Park KJ, Gaynor RB, Kwak YT. Heat shock protein 27 association with the I kappa B kinase complex regulates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced NF-kappa B activationJ Biol Chem. (2003)
  95. ^ Antioxidants preserve redox balance and inhibit c-Jun-N-terminal kinase pathway while improving insulin signaling in fat-fed rats: evidence for the role of oxidative stress on IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and insulin resistance.
  96. a b c d Chen WL, et al. α-Lipoic acid regulates lipid metabolism through induction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activation of AMP-activated protein kinaseDiabetologia. (2012)
  97. a b Shen QW, et al. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase is involved in AMP-activated protein kinase activation by alpha-lipoic acid in C2C12 myotubesAm J Physiol Cell Physiol. (2007)
  98. a b Chou TC, Shih CY, Chen YT. Inhibitory effect of α-lipoic acid on platelet aggregation is mediated by PPARsJ Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  99. ^ α-Lipoic Acid Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Rats via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.
  100. ^ G D X, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidismExp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. (2010)
  101. ^ Heinisch BB, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid improves vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled randomized trialEur J Clin Invest. (2010)
  102. ^ Xiang GD, et al. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperglycaemia during OGTT in impaired glucose toleranceClin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2008)
  103. a b Xiao C, Giacca A, Lewis GF. Short-term oral α-lipoic acid does not prevent lipid-induced dysregulation of glucose homeostasis in obese and overweight nondiabetic menAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  104. a b c Porasuphatana S, et al. Glycemic and oxidative status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled studyAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  105. ^ Anuradha B, Varalakshmi P. Protective role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid against mercury-induced neural lipid peroxidationPharmacol Res. (1999)
  106. ^ Bast A, Haenen GR. Interplay between lipoic acid and glutathione in the protection against microsomal lipid peroxidationBiochim Biophys Acta. (1988)
  107. ^ Moini H, et al. R-alpha-lipoic acid action on cell redox status, the insulin receptor, and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytesArch Biochem Biophys. (2002)
  108. ^ Suh JH, et al. Decline in transcriptional activity of Nrf2 causes age-related loss of glutathione synthesis, which is reversible with lipoic acidProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2004)
  109. ^ Zhang DD, et al. Keap1 is a redox-regulated substrate adaptor protein for a Cul3-dependent ubiquitin ligase complexMol Cell Biol. (2004)
  110. ^ Dinkova-Kostova AT, et al. Direct evidence that sulfhydryl groups of Keap1 are the sensors regulating induction of phase 2 enzymes that protect against carcinogens and oxidantsProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2002)
  111. ^ Kobayashi A, et al. Oxidative and electrophilic stresses activate Nrf2 through inhibition of ubiquitination activity of Keap1Mol Cell Biol. (2006)
  112. ^ Hong F, et al. Specific patterns of electrophile adduction trigger Keap1 ubiquitination and Nrf2 activationJ Biol Chem. (2005)
  113. ^ Lykkesfeldt J, et al. Age-associated decline in ascorbic acid concentration, recycling, and biosynthesis in rat hepatocytes–reversal with (R)-alpha-lipoic acid supplementationFASEB J. (1998)
  114. ^ Suh JH, et al. Oxidative stress in the aging rat heart is reversed by dietary supplementation with (R)-(alpha)-lipoic acidFASEB J. (2001)
  115. ^ Michels AJ, Joisher N, Hagen TM. Age-related decline of sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transport in isolated rat hepatocytesArch Biochem Biophys. (2003)
  116. ^ Xu DP, Wells WW. alpha-Lipoic acid dependent regeneration of ascorbic acid from dehydroascorbic acid in rat liver mitochondriaJ Bioenerg Biomembr. (1996)
  117. ^ Mollo R, et al. Effect of α-lipoic acid on platelet reactivity in type 1 diabetic patientsDiabetes Care. (2012)
  118. ^ Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ. alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidantFree Radic Biol Med. (1995)
  119. ^ Chaudhary P, Marracci GH, Bourdette DN. Lipoic acid inhibits expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by CNS endothelial cells and T cell migration into the spinal cord in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisJ Neuroimmunol. (2006)
  120. ^ Kunt T, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial adhesion of human monocytes after stimulation with advanced glycation end productsClin Sci (Lond). (1999)
  121. ^ Kim HS, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by inhibiting NF-kappaB transcriptional activityExp Mol Med. (2007)
  122. ^ Lee EY, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid suppresses the development of collagen-induced arthritis and protects against bone destruction in miceRheumatol Int. (2007)
  123. ^ Zhang WJ, Frei B. Alpha-lipoic acid inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cellsFASEB J. (2001)
  124. ^ Sola S, et al. Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: results of the Irbesartan and Lipoic Acid in Endothelial Dysfunction (ISLAND) studyCirculation. (2005)
  125. ^ Bae SC, et al. Effects of antioxidant supplements intervention on the level of plasma inflammatory molecules and disease severity of rheumatoid arthritis patientsJ Am Coll Nutr. (2009)
  126. ^ Jung TS, et al. α-lipoic acid prevents non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in OLETF ratsLiver Int. (2012)
  127. ^ Kandeil MA, et al. Role of lipoic acid on insulin resistance and leptin in experimentally diabetic ratsJ Diabetes Complications. (2011)
  128. a b c Shen W, et al. R-alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine complementarily promote mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytesDiabetologia. (2008)
  129. ^ Jun DW, et al. Prevention of free fatty acid-induced hepatic lipotoxicity by carnitine via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunctionLiver Int. (2011)
  130. a b Ide T, et al. Combined effect of sesamin and α-lipoic acid on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in ratsEur J Nutr. (2012)
  133. a b Hale G1, Wallis NG, Perham RN. Interaction of avidin with the lipoyl domains in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex: three-dimensional location and similarity to biotinyl domains in carboxylasesProc Biol Sci. (1992)
  134. ^ Cremer DR, et al. Long-term safety of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) consumption: A 2-year studyRegul Toxicol Pharmacol. (2006)
  135. ^ Ziegler D, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: a 7-month multicenter randomized controlled trial (ALADIN III Study). ALADIN III Study Group. Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Diabetic NeuropathyDiabetes Care. (1999)
  136. ^ Ziegler D, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid. A 3-week multicentre randomized controlled trial (ALADIN Study)Diabetologia. (1995)
  137. ^ Cakatay U, Kayali R. Plasma protein oxidation in aging rats after alpha-lipoic acid administrationBiogerontology. (2005)
  138. ^ Kayali R, et al. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on markers of protein oxidation in post-mitotic tissues of ageing ratCell Biochem Funct. (2006)
  139. Vincent HK, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in peripheral arterial disease: a pilot studyJ Altern Complement Med. (2007)
  140. Burke DG, et al. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentrationInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2003)
  141. Coleman MD, Fernandes S, Khanderia L. A preliminary evaluation of a novel method to monitor a triple antioxidant combination (vitamins E, C and α-lipoic acid) in diabetic volunteers using in vitro methaemoglobin formationEnviron Toxicol Pharmacol. (2003)
  142. Jariwalla RJ, et al. Restoration of blood total glutathione status and lymphocyte function following alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in patients with HIV infectionJ Altern Complement Med. (2008)
  143. Palacka P, et al. Complementary therapy in diabetic patients with chronic complications: a pilot studyBratisl Lek Listy. (2010)
  144. Lott IT, et al. Down syndrome and dementia: a randomized, controlled trial of antioxidant supplementationAm J Med Genet A. (2011)
  145. Martins VD, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid modifies oxidative stress parameters in sickle cell trait subjects and sickle cell patientsClin Nutr. (2009)
  146. Milazzo L, et al. Effect of antioxidants on mitochondrial function in HIV-1-related lipoatrophy: a pilot studyAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. (2010)
  147. McNeilly AM, et al. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose toleranceLipids Health Dis. (2011)
  148. Carbonelli MG, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation: a tool for obesity therapyCurr Pharm Des. (2010)
  149. Khabbazi T, et al. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Serum Lipid Profile Levels in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on HemodialysisJ Ren Nutr. (2011)
  150. Foster TS. Efficacy and safety of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic neuropathyDiabetes Educ. (2007)
  151. Weiss C, et al. Effects of supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid on exercise-induced activation of coagulationMetabolism. (2005)
  152. de Oliveira AM, et al. The effects of lipoic acid and α-tocopherol supplementation on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialDiabetes Res Clin Pract. (2011)
  153. Baillie JK, et al. Oral antioxidant supplementation does not prevent acute mountain sickness: double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trialQJM. (2009)
  154. Wray DW, et al. Oral antioxidants and cardiovascular health in the exercise-trained and untrained elderly: a radically different outcomeClin Sci (Lond). (2009)
  155. Sharman JE, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid does not acutely affect resistance and conduit artery function or oxidative stress in healthy menBr J Clin Pharmacol. (2004)
  156. Zembron-Lacny A, et al. Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exerciseJ Physiol Pharmacol. (2009)