Iron is an essential mineral for the body, as it participates in the formation of blood cells and helps in the transport of oxygen. It is also important for DNA synthesis and energy metabolism. The lack of iron can harm the body in several ways, related to immunological problems, productivity and mental performance.
- Origin: Plant Based, Animal Product
- Source: Eggs, Meat, Fish, Beans, Chickpea, Leafy Greens, Beetroot, Peanuts, Walnuts, Oatmeal, Spirulina Algae, Chlorella Algae, Seaweeds, Cocoa
- Type: Mineral
- Age Range: Adults (18-60), Seniors (>60)
- Toxicity: May be toxic in high doses
- Outcomes: Immunity, Immune Response
What are Iron benefits?
Table of relations
Published articles about Iron and Immune Response
Supplementation of garlic powder (180mg allicin) over the course of twelve weeks noted that the supplementation group recovered from sickness faster (1.52 days of sickness relative to 5.02 in placebo) and experienced sickness at a lower rate (111 cumulative sick days, relative to 366 in placebo), suggesting immunity from the common cold by reducing both length and occurrence by 70%.
Supplementation With Aged Garlic Extract Improves Both NK And γδ-T Cell Function And Reduces The Severity Of Cold And Flu Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Nutrition Intervention
Supplementation of 2.56g of aged garlic extract to otherwise healthy persons for 90 days was associated with increases in natural killer cells and γδ-T cells in serum (2-fold and 8-fold, respectively), and this was associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing sickness and a lesser decrease in symptoms. Glutathione in PBMCs was noted to be increased in the garlic group but not control.
Influence Of Vitamin C Supplementation On Oxidative And Salivary IgA Changes Following An Ultramarathon
In athletes given 1,500mg Vitamin C daily for a week prior to a marathon (and then extra supplemental Vitamin C throughout the race), post-exercise cortisol had its spike exacerbated after the race but failed to influence immune parameters (salivary IgA).
High-dose Ascorbic Acid Increases Intercourse Frequency And Improves Mood: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Supplementation of 3,000mg time released Vitamin C daily for two weeks has been noted to, in otherwise healthy adults, to decrease depression symptoms on the BDI (down 1.56 points from 4.8; scale is a 0-17 scale) and increase intercourse frequency (from 4 times a month to 14; placebo dropped from 6 to 4). There was no influence on frequency of masturbation.
Pretreatment With Intravenous Ascorbic Acid Preserves Endothelial Function During Acute Hyperglycaemia (R1)
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial, 9 healthy, male participants were tested on two separate occasions 2-3 weeks apart. The effect of an acute dose of 2 g of vitamin C or placebo administered intravenously was tested under artificial hyperglycemia, achieved through intravenous dextrose to maintain blood glucose of 14 mmol/L, while basal insulin levels were maintained by intravenous octreotide. Forearm blood flow was measured in response to infusions of acetylcholine (for endothelium-dependent vasodilation), and sodium nitroprusside (or endothelium-independent vasodilation). Vitamin C led to a notable, statistically significant attenuation of the increase in mean arterial pressure and forearm vascular resistance and the reduction in forearm blood flow due to hyperglycemia. Endothelial function was impaired by hyperglycemia in the placebo group but the change was completely abolished in the vitamin C group. *Glucose and insulin measures excluded due to artificial stabilization in the lab.
Supplementation Of Vitamin C Reduces Blood Glucose And Improves Glycosylated Hemoglobin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-blind Study
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 participants with type 2 diabetes who were taking metformin received 500 mg of vitamin C twice daily (1000 mg per day) or a placebo. After 12 weeks, the participants who received vitamin C saw a modest and significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and Hba1c compared with the placebo group. All of the participants in the study were advised to minimize foods rich in vitamin C in their diets throughout the study. This, however, didn't reduce plasma vitamin C concentrations in the placebo group, while the vitamin C group saw a significant increase.
The Effect Of Vitamin C Supplementation On Diabetic Hyperlipidaemia: A Double Blind, Crossover Study
In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 50 type 2 diabetes patients took 500 mg/d of vitamin C or placebo for 2 months per treatment. There were no statistically significant changes in fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, cholesterol, or blood pressure between the groups. Triglycerides were modestly and significantly lower in the vitamin C period of one of the stages of the crossover trial but not the other.
In a randomized, open label, controlled (but not placebo-controlled) trial, eighty healthy participants received either 2 g of ascorbic acid or no supplementation for two weeks. The primary outcome was serum resistin. At the end of two weeks, the vitamin C group saw a large, statistically significant reduction in resistin and nitrotyrosine compared with the control group. The vitamin C group also saw an increase in oxidized glutathione and plasma vitamin C. No statistically significant changes were observed for fasting glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting insulin, or CRP. Two participants in the vitamin C group complained of gastric discomfort while none did in the control group.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 9 healthy, young adults received either 2 g/d of vitamin C or placebo for 2 weeks for each stage. There was a two week placebo-only lead-in period prior to supplementation and a two week washout period before crossover. Subjects were assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 75 g of sucrose at the end of each two week supplementation period. During the study period, all subjects were asked to avoid foods high in vitamin C. The OGTT involved blood tests at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 hours after consumption of sucrose. The area under the curve for plasma glucose was greater while taking vitamin C, but the difference wasn't statistically significant. Only at 1 hour into the OGTT was there a statistically significant difference, with the vitamin C group being higher than placebo. For plasma insulin, there was no statistically significant difference between groups for the overall area under the curve, but the placebo group was significantly higher at 0.5 hours and the vitamin C group was significantly higher at 2.0 hours. Fasting glucose wasn't different between vitamin C and placebo, and plasma vitamin C levels were 81% greater during vitamin C supplementation.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, ultramarathon runners took 500 mg of vitamin C three times per day (1.5 g/d) or placebo for 7 days prior to a race and 500 mg before the race began. 28 participants complied with all protocols and were analyzed. As expected, vitamin C in plasma was higher in the vitamin C group. There was a statistically significant difference in uric acid levels between groups, with the placebo group seeing an increase and the vitamin C group seeing no change. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for lipid hydroperoxide, F2-isoprostane, serum glucose, insulin (although there was a notable reduction in the placebo group and increase in the vitamin C group), cortisol, or measures of immune cells or cytokines.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial, 10 healthy male subjects received intravenous administration of 24 mg vitamin C every minute or placebo during intravenous elevation of free fatty acid levels with Intralipid and heparin. Vitamin C significantly attenuated the impairment of endothelium-independent vasodilation compared with placebo but didn't show a significant effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, glucose, or insulin levels. Of course, vitamin C levels were higher in the vitamin C group. No adverse events were reported during the experiment.
High-dose Oral Vitamin C Partially Replenishes Vitamin C Levels In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Low Vitamin C Levels But Does Not Improve Endothelial Dysfunction Or Insulin Resistance
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 37 participants (32 completed) were assigned to take either 800 mg of vitamin C per day or placebo for 4 weeks. Participants were screened beforehand to ensure that they had low vitamin C levels and were encouraged to avoid vitamin C from food or supplements during the study. Despite a large increase in vitamin C levels after supplementation, were no statistically significant differences between groups for fasting glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, or vasodilation.
Molecular Detection Of Exercise-induced Free Radicals Following Ascorbate Prophylaxis In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomised Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 12 male type-1 diabetic and 14 healthy male participants took a single dose of 1 g vitamin C or placebo prior to an exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The test was to voluntary exhaustion, incremental, and progressive. Blood samples were taken before and after exercise. There were no statistically significant differences between vitamin C and placebo in either type-1 diabetic or healthy participants for, V0₂ peak, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, power output, exercise time, or glucose levels. Vitamin C supplementation led to a significant reduction in free radicals and lipid hydroperoxides induced by exercise.
Vitamin E And Respiratory Tract Infections In Elderly Nursing Home Residents: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Supplementation of 200 IU Vitamin E over the course of a year in elderly persons failed to have any protective effect on lower respiratory tract infections, but a mild protective effect against upper respiratory tract infections was noted (mostly the common cold). Total sick days was not affected and symptomology during sickness was not measured.
30 days supplementation of vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (800mg) to otherwise healthy older adults appeared to increase immunity (DTH reactivity) and IL-2 concentrations and the mitogenic response to a mitogen (concavalin A) by 67+/-24% and 24% respectively. These changes were associated with a reduction in PGE2 secretion from immune cells and a decrease in lipid peroxidation in plasma.
Vitamin E Supplementation And In Vivo Immune Response In Healthy Elderly Subjects. A Randomized Controlled Trial
In otherwise healthy older adults given vitamin E supplementation at three doses (60, 200, and 800mg) for approximately eight months who received vaccinations, it appeared that while vitamin E did not influence the overall count of B and T cells that it increased the antibody response to hepatitis B and tetanus (but not diptheria) and immunity as assessed by DTH reactivity; the effect was most effective at 200mg (65% increase in DTH reactivity) with some but lesser effects seen at both 60mg (41%) and 800mg (49%) relative to placebo (17%).
Effect Of 50- And 100-mg Vitamin E Supplements On Cellular Immune Function In Noninstitutionalized Elderly Persons
Supplementation of 50mg and 100mg of vitamin E (as alpha-tocopherol) daily for six months in the elderly was able to significantly increase immunosupportive levels of IL-2 while decreasing IFN-gamma concentrations; the decrease in IL-4 concentrations failed to reach statistical significance. Alongside these changes was an increase in DTH responsiveness, indicative of increased immune responsiveness (and immunity). This response was markedly more pronounced in persons with lower DTH responsiveness at baseline.
Assessment Of The Safety Of High-dose, Short-term Supplementation With Vitamin E In Healthy Older Adults
Supplementation of 800mg of alpha-tocopherol daily for 30 days in otherwise healthy older persons (60+) noted that there was an increase in indices of T-cell mediated immunity but no other parameter was significantly affected by supplementation relative to placebo.
A Randomized Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study To Establish The Effects Of Spirulina In Elderly Koreans
8g of spirulina for 4 months was associated with the above changes; more-so in females, but favorable inflammatory changes in men only
Spirulina Maxima Decreases Endothelial Damage And Oxidative Stress Indicators In Patients With Systemic Arterial Hypertension: Results From Exploratory Controlled Clinical Trial
In a 12-week randomized, single-blind pilot trial, 16 participants with systemic arterial hypertension who were taking ACE inhibitors took 4.5 g of spirulina maxima or placebo daily. Blood pressure was reduced more in the spirulina group. There were also improvements in sVCAM-1, sE-Selectin, Endothelin-1 but not sICAM-1. There were also general improvements in antioxidant status, though not oxidative stress.
The Influence Of Obesity On The Effects Of Spirulina Supplementation In The Human Metabolic Response Of Korean Elderly
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for 4 months 78 elderly participants took 8 g of spirulina or placebo daily for 4 months. There was a greater reduction in total cholesterol among non-obese but not obese participants. Differences in LDL, HDL, triglycerides and atherogenic index weren't statistically significant. There also weren't statistically significant differences in total antioxidant status. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in TBARs in non-obese participants but not obese participants.
Spirulina Supplementation And Oxidative Stress And Pro-inflammatory Biomarkers: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Controlled Clinical Trials
This was a meta-analysis of clinical trials that looked at the effect of spirulina on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. A total of 11 studies involving 465 participants was included. There was an increase in IL-2, reduction in IL-6, no effect on TNF-a, and a non-significant reduction in malondialdehyde and TBARS.
High-Dose Monthly Vitamin D For Prevention Of Acute Respiratory Infection In Older Long-Term Care Residents: A Randomized Clinical Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 107 elderly participants in long-term care facilities took 400-1000 IU or 3,000-4000 IU of vitamin D daily, while participants who were already taking vitamin D were given 100,000 IU or 12,000 IU monthly. This persisted for one year. 36 participants didn't complete the study but were included in the intention to treat analysis. The primary outcome was the total number of acute respiratory infections and the incidence of infections was significantly lower in the high dose group compared with the standard-dose group. The reduction derived from upper but now lower respiratory tract infections. There was a significantly higher rate of falls in the vitamin D group, but not fractures, hospitalizations, or deaths. The mean serum vitamin D levels were 23.0 ng/ml in both groups at baseline and increased to roughly 34 on the high dose and roughly 26 in the low dose group.
Echinaforce And Other Echinacea Fresh Plant Preparations In The Treatment Of The Common Cold. A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Double-blind Clinical Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 246 of 559 recruited participants caught a common cold and took two capsules 3 times daily of 6.78 mg of an echinacea purpurea crude extract based on 95% herb and 5% root, 48.27 mg of that same extract, 29.60 mg based on root only, or placebo. 65 of the 246 participants were excluded from the per-protocol analysis due to dropouts and protocol violations but were included in the intention to treat analysis. The primary outcome was the reduction in cold symptoms according to doctors' records, and participants in each group saw notably greater reductions in average symptoms than placebo, with there not being a notable difference between per protocol and intention to treat. Root + herb extracts were equally effective despite their different dosing, while the root only extra, while more effective than the placebo, was less effective than root + herb. However, there were no differences between the root only extra and placebo from patients' records, while root + herb appeared to be effective.
Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory tract infections
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 160 participants with respiratory tract infections that had persisted for 3 or fewer days took 900 mg of echinacea pallida root tincture (strength unknown) or placebo for 8 to 10 days. The length of sickness from bacterial and viral infections was notably shorter in the echinacea group than the placebo group, and as were the symptoms of cold, weakness, pain in extremities and headache during the testing periods
Efficacy of a standardized echinacea preparation (EchinilinTM) for the treatment of the common cold: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy participants who had contracted at least two colds in the previous year took 40% ethanol extracts providing containing alkamides/ cichoric acid/polysaccharides at concentrations of 0·25/2·5/25·5 mg/mL, respectively. 40 ml was taken on the first day in 10 divided doses, and 24 ml was taken on the next 6 days in 6 divided doses daily. The primary outcome was the change in total daily symptom score, and there was a statistically significant reduction in score in the echinacea group compared with the placebo group, which held for runny nose, sore throat, stuffy nose, fatigue, headache, chills, but not for cough. 17 participants dropped out and weren't included in the per protocol analysis, though intention to treat included them. Duration for the per-protocol analysis was lower for echinacea for all symptoms except for cough, though it was only statistically significant for nasal congestion in the per-protocol analysis.
A Proprietary Extract From The Echinacea Plant (Echinacea Purpurea) Enhances Systemic Immune Response During A Common Cold
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 150 participants who were prone to colds were recruited, and 62 developed a cold and were given 8 doses of 5 ml of a 40% ethanol echinacea extract containing alkamides/cichoric acid/polysaccharides at concentrations of 0.25/2.5/25.5 mg/mL, respectively on the first dose and 3 on each of the next 6 days, or placebo. Total daily symptoms were lower when taking echinacea than placebo, and the difference was statistically significant after the third day. There was also an increase in total leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils, but not lymphocytes, and the respiratory burst capacity of neutrophils, while there was a decrease in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase units during echinacea.
Efficacy Of A Standardized Echinacea Preparation (Echinilin) For The Treatment Of The Common Cold: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 282 participants who had experienced two or more colds in the previous year were recruited. If they developed a cold, they were given 10 doses of 4 ml of 40% ethanol extract of echinacea purpurea with alkamides/ cichoric acid/polysaccharides at concentrations of 0.25/2.5/25.5 mg/mL on the first day and 4 doses per day for the next 6. 128 participants developed colds and took their supplements. There was a greater dropout in the placebo group due to use of relief medication (1 in echinacea group and 7 in placebo). The primary outcome was the change in total daily symptom score, and the echinacea group consistently had significantly fewer symptoms than the placebo group after the 2nd day to the 7th. Average severity for running nose, sore throat, stuffy nose, cough, fatigue, headache, and chills was lower in the echinacea group, though not for cough. Duration of symptoms tended to be lower, except for coughing, though was only statistically significant in the per protocol analysis for sore throat and nasal congestion.
In a placebo-controlled trial with unclear blinding or randomization, 117 participants were given 300 mg of echinacea extract for 14 days before being exposed to 100 to 300 50% tissue culture-infective doses of rhinovirus type were 23. 92 participants were actually exposed to the virus and continued echinacea for an additional 5 days. A nonsignificantly smaller percentage of participants taking echinacea acquired infections. The total symptom score wasn't different between groups, and the severity score for rhinorrhea was nonsignificantly a little lower in the echinacea group.
4 weeks supplementation of echinacea paired with exercise known to reduce sailvary s-IgA levels (biomarker of immunity) failed to find a difference in rates of sickness although there was a reported decrease in length of sickness and attenuation in s-IgA, the biomarker of immunity chosen
Echinacea Root Extracts For The Prevention Of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Randomized Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 302 participants were given 50 drops twice daily of a 30$ ethanol 1:11 plant:extract product of echinacea Angustifolia, echinacea purpura, or placebo for 12 weeks. There were 113 upper respiratory tract infections but while there were fewer in the echinacea groups, the difference compared with the placebo wasn't statistically significant.
Echinacea For The Prevention And Treatment Of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis
A meta-analysis on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using echinacea to prevent or treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) was performed. Trials, where participants weren't otherwise healthy, were excluded. There were 29 trials included from 31 publications, where 9 evaluated incidence, 7 duration, and 16 safety. There was a statistically significant reduction in the risk for URTIs, and a nonsignificant reduction in duration according to the random effects model but not the fixed model, and no significant difference for the number of participants experiencing at least one adverse event. Funnel plots found ambiguous results for the possibility of publication bias, but the researchers found incidences of unreported data in studies.
Efficacy And Safety Of Echinacea In Treating Upper Respiratory Tract Infections In Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
When assessing the effects of 4 months of echinacea usage in children, there was no observable preventative effect on the common cold
Acute usage of echinacea at the first signs of the cold (10.2g dry plant weight on day one, 5.1g for 4 days afterwards) trended towards benefit but failed to outperform placebo in regards to reducing sickness frequency and length.
Treatment of echinacea 7 days before an experimentally induced common cold, relative to placebo, failed to modify how many persons experienced symptoms of the length of symptoms
A small (n=3) meta-analysis of echinacea supplementation with clinically induced cold viruses noted reduced occurrence thereof but failed to find any significant influence on symptoms of the cold.
Echinacea Purpurea Therapy For The Treatment Of The Common Cold: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 128 participants with the common cold were given placebo or capsules containing 100 mg of freeze-dried pressed juice a pure standard extract of the aerial portion of echinacea purpurea and instructed to take 1 capsule 3 times daily for 14 days or until their last symptom had disappeared. There wasn't a statistically significant difference between groups for total symptoms at any point in the study, nor the time to resolution.
A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Effect Of Fluid Extract Of Echinacea Purpurea On The Incidence And Severity Of Colds And Respiratory Infections
In persons with high occurrences of colds (3 or more within the preceding year), 8mL of echinacea titre over 8 weeks was able to reduce the occurrence of the common cold more than placebo and reduce the length of the cold when it occurred
A broad assessment of trials noted a 58% reduction in cold occurrence (when taken as a daily supplement) and 1.4 reduced length of colds (either daily or in response to cold symptoms) associated with echinacea supplementation within the normally recommended range
Efficacy Of Echinacea Purpurea In Patients With A Common Cold. A Placebo-controlled, Randomised, Double-blind Clinical Trial
Echinacea titre taken at the first signs of the occurrence of cold symptoms was more effective than placebo in reducing the length of cold symptoms
Evaluation Of A Single Dose Of Ferric Carboxymaltose In Fatigued, Iron-deficient Women--PREFER A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study
In a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial, 294 premenopausal women with iron deficiency but not anemia were given an intravenous dose of 1000 mg of iron from ferric carboxymaltose or saline and followed for 56 days. The iron dose ensured that participants in the iron group weren't iron-deficient or anemic. There was a modest improvement in fatigue as assessed by the Piper Fatigue Scale score, and 65% of participants in the iron group saw a response as opposed to 53% in the placebo group. The improvement was a general one across the various behavioral, affective, sensory, and cognitive/mood symptoms. There was a modestly greater rate of headaches, nasopharyngitis, pyrexia, and nausea in the iron group, which was generally mild or moderate.
Intravenous Iron For The Treatment Of Fatigue In Nonanemic, Premenopausal Women With Low Serum Ferritin Concentration
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 90 premenopausal women with fatigue and low iron levels but not anemia were assigned to receive 800 mg of intravenous iron (III)-hydroxide sucrose or placebo and followed for 12 weeks. There was a substantial increase in ferritin and no increase in hemoglobin in the iron group. The reduction in fatigue score was somewhat greater in the iron group, but the difference wasn't statistically significant. On the other hand, the number of people who believed that their fatigue improved was significantly higher in the iron group (65% vs 40%). The groups didn't report a significant difference in adverse events.
Iron Supplementation For Unexplained Fatigue In Non-anaemic Women: Double Blind Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 144 women with fatigue and low ferritin concentrations but not anemia were assigned to take either 80 mg of ferrous sulfate per day or placebo for 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, there was a statistically significant greater reduction in fatigue as measured by a VAS in the iron group than the placebo group.
Effect Of Iron Supplementation On Fatigue In Nonanemic Menstruating Women With Low Ferritin: A Randomized Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 198 premenopausal women with low iron but not anemia were assigned to 80 mg of elemental iron from ferrous sulfate or placebo for 12 weeks. Hemoglobin and ferritin were increased more in the iron group than the placebo group. The primary outcome was fatigue on the Current and Past Psychological Scale, and the iron group saw a modestly greater reduction than the placebo group, which was statistically significant, and higher for those with lower hemoglobin and lower for those with lower ferritin. Reduction in score on the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale Index was also greater in the iron group, which was also significant compared with the placebo. There wasn't a statistically significant improvement in depression, anxiety, or quality of life in the iron group compared with the placebo group. There was a somewhat higher rate of adverse events in the iron group (34.3%) as opposed to the placebo group (25%), which was statistically significant.
Clinical Evaluation Of Iron Treatment Efficiency Among Non-anemic But Iron-deficient Female Blood Donors: A Randomized Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 154 female blood donors with iron deficiency but not anemia took 80 mg ferrous sulfate or placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, hemoglobin and ferritin were increased more in the iron group, but there was no notable difference in the improvement of fatigue. There was also no change in fitness as measured by the Chester step test.
Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial Of Iron Supplementation In Female Soldiers During Military Training: Effects On Iron Status, Physical Performance, And Mood
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 219 female soldiers undergoing basic training were assigned to take 100 mg of ferrous sulfate or placebo for 8 weeks. The participants weren't necessarily anemic or iron-deficient though many were (28 and 35, respectively). At the end of 8 weeks, ferritin decreased in both groups but less in the iron group, while hemoglobin was increased similarly in both groups. Physical performance, as assessed by 2-mile running time, was unchanged in participants with normal iron study, nonsignificantly improved somewhat in those with iron deficiency but not anemia, and significantly improved in those with iron deficiency anemia. There was a statistically significantly greater improvement in vigor on the Profile Of Mood States compared with placebo, but not detail score or any of the other measures, and it wasn't clear if iron status was a factor in its improvement. Iron deficient participants were more likely to see improvements in the depression and fatigue measures, though the difference wasn't statistically significant compared with placebo.
Four Weeks Of IV Iron Supplementation Reduces Perceived Fatigue And Mood Disturbance In Distance Runners
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 14 distance runners without anemia but with low ferritin levels were allocated to 3 intravenous doses of 100 mg ferric-carboxymaltose or saline over 4 weeks. There was no significant difference between groups in for the 400 m time trial, or for the 10x400 m training session. The iron group had a moderate but not statistically significant improvement compared with placebo in total mood disturbance from the Brunel Mood Scale. After 6 weeks, there was a notable, statistically significant improvement in total fatigue score in the iron group compared with the placebo group. While the iron group didn't see an improvement in running time, the placebo group saw a greater worsening, the difference being statistically significant for the 3000 m at week 4.
The Efficacy Of Pelargonium Sidoides In The Treatment Of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections In Children With Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia Of Infancy
In children with upper respiratory tract infections associated with transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy, supplementation of 1.5mL (10 drops) of EPs-7630 thrice daily for a week was able to significantly benefit nasal congestion (71.4% of treatment having no congestion relative to 21.5% of placebo) and appetite. Fever, cough, well being, and myalgia were not affected.
Pelargonium Sidoides Preparation (EPs 7630) In The Treatment Of Acute Bronchitis In Adults And Children
Two weeks supplementation of EPs7630 to persons of all ages (30 drops thrice daily for adults, but 20 drops thrice daily for those between 6-12 and 10 drops thrice daily for those younger than 6) was able to significantly reduce overall symptoms as assessed by the BSS by around 86% with 68% of the sample reporting more than a 5 point reduction. Most other comorbidities such as fever, fatigue, and headache were reduced in the range of 80-94.6%. Rhonchi (93.1% remission) chest pain during cough (94.1%), and shortness of breath (93.2%), but cough was only abolished in 56.2% of persons.
Treatment Of Acute Bronchitis With EPs 7630: Randomized, Controlled Trial In Children And Adolescents
Supplementation of the standard doses of EPs7630 to children under six years of age (10 drops thrice daily), above 12 (30 drops thrice daily) or between the two ages (20 drops thrice daily) for one week around meals noted significant reductions in overall symptoms with the onset of symptom reduction occurring within 3-4 days.
Efficacy And Safety Of An Extract Of Pelargonium Sidoides (EPs 7630) In Adults With Acute Bronchitis. A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
Thirty drops (4.5mL) of Eps7630 thrice daily for a week in adults with acute bronchitis around the time of meals was associated with a greater decrease of overall symptoms as assessed by the BSS rating scale (70% reduction in symptoms) relative to placebo (40%) with symptom reduction occurring in about three days time. EPs7630 was also more effective at causing an overall rating of less than three on the 10 point rating scale (64.4% relative to 37.9%) and at inducing a 7 point reduction within the week (43.3% relative to 23% in placebo). After 7 days, there was abolishment of rhonchi (77.1%), coughing (83.8%) fatigue (65.1%), headache (75-81.7%), and fever (96.9%) in treatment, all more than placebo.
Supplementation of 10-30mg of EPs7630 thrice daily in youth and adolescents with acute bronchitis over a week was able to reduce symptoms as assessed by the BSS in a dose-dependent manner (although all doses were more effective than placebo).
Efficacy Of A Pelargonium Sidoides Preparation In Patients With The Common Cold: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial
In adults with cold symptoms for 24-48 hours, supplementation of EPs7630 at 30 drops (1.5mL) thrice daily for up to 10 days and assessed by total symptoms and cold intensity rating scales noted that supplementation was assocatiated with twice the reduction in symptoms than was placebo, and after 10 days 78.8% of persons given the supplement were seen as clinically cured (relative to 31.4% of placebo).
Treatment Of Acute Bronchitis In Adults With A Pelargonium Sidoides Preparation (EPs 7630): A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
30 drops (4.5mL) of EPs7630 thrice daily for a week in adults with acute bronchitis was associated with significant reductions in symptoms as assessed by the BSS rating scale. There was also a greater change of a 5 point reduction in the treatment group (90.6%) rather than placebo (51.7%) and reported rapid recovery (90.6% relative to 41.7%); there were significantly more remissions of cough (31.3%), rhonchi (91%)
Can The Pelargonium Sidoides Root Extract EPs® 7630 Prevent Asthma Attacks During Viral Infections Of The Upper Respiratory Tract In Children
In asthmatic children with viral URTIs, supplementation of the standard doses of EPs7630 was able to reduce nasal congestion and cough but not fever nor muscle aches. There was a significant reduction in asthmatic attacks in the sick group treated with EPs7630 relative to placebo.
Treatment Of Acute Bronchitis With A Liquid Herbal Drug Preparation From Pelargonium Sidoides (EPs 7630): A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicentre Study
In adult patients with acute bronchitis given 30 drops of EPs7630 thrice daily for a period of one week, symptoms of acute bronchitis (BSS) was able to increase complete remission on day seven to 45.4% of the treatment group (over 6.4% of the placebo) as assessed by physicians, and 89.8% and 65.1% self-reported complete or major recovery (more 'complete' recovery in treatment). Most marked improvement was in cough, where only 11.9% of placebo reported complete recovery while 51.9% of treatment did after seven days.
Efficacy And Tolerability Of EPs 7630 Tablets In Patients With Acute Bronchitis: A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Dose-finding Study With A Herbal Drug Preparation From Pelargonium Sidoides
Patients with acute bronchitis administered EPs7630 in capsules ranging from 10mg thrice daily to 30mg thrice daily (or placebo) over the course of one week noted that 20mg and 30mg groups were equally effective over placebo while 10mg was sometimes effective over placebo but unreliably so.
EPs7630 at 30 drops thrice daily in persons with bronchitis (either acute, or chronic bronchitis experienced an exacerbation) over a week was associated with improvements on all symptoms of bronchitis to a level greater than placebo. Symptoms appeared to be improved within 2 days of supplementation, and after 7 days 92.7% of the treatment group reported satisfaction with treatment.
EPs 7630 Improves Acute Bronchitic Symptoms And Shortens Time To Remission. Results Of A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicentre Trial
In adult outpatients with acute bronchitis given the standard 30 drops of EPs7630 thrice daily for a period of seven days, there were significantly improved symptoms on all parameters of the BSS and secondary outcome variables with particular improvement in fatigue and coughs; days off from work was reduced secondary to helping cure acute bronchitis.
Immune Responses Induced By Pelargonium Sidoides Extract In Serum And Nasal Mucosa Of Athletes After Exhaustive Exercise: Modulation Of Secretory IgA, IL-6 And IL-15
Supplementation of a product with very similar composition to EPs-7630 at 30 drops thrice daily for a month to male marathon runners without allergic disorders and maintaining their normal training protocols noted an increase in post-exercise salivary IgA relative to placebo and the exercise induced increases in IL-6 and IL-15 were prevented with supplementation.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 2259 participants who had recently had a colorectal adenoma removed took 1000 IU and 1200 mg of calcium carbonate daily, and 761 completed at least one health diary that provided information about infectious diseases. There were no notable differences between the groups for reports of upper respiratory tract infections or colds during winter, and there was a small reduction in influenza-like illness. The same was true for all seasons, except the reduction in influenza-like illness was even more doubtful. The mean vitamin D levels were 25.1 (9.1) in the placebo group and 33.3 (9.9) in the vitamin D group.
In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial 247 child participants with vitamin D deficiencies took a daily dose of 300 IU of vitamin D in milk, 300 in a milk substitute, 300 in a pill over a 7 week period, or 13 700 IU over the first 7 days of the study. Another group received control milk. The primary outcome was the parent-reported acute respiratory infection rate, and there was a notable reduction in the rate compared with placebo. The median/IQR vitamin d level in the control groups was 6.8 (4.3–9.5) ng/ml and 7.0 (5.0–9.9) for the intervention groups.
Double-blind Randomised Controlled Trial Of Vitamin D3 Supplementation For The Prevention Of Acute Respiratory Infection In Older Adults And Their Carers (ViDiFlu)
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 137 participants in sheltered-accommodation housing blocks received 2.4 mg of vitamin D once every 2 months with 10 μg daily for residents and 3 mg once every 2 months for carers, 103 participants were allocated to control of placebo every 2 months with 10 μg daily vitamin D for residents and only placebo once every 2 months for carers. This persisted for one year. The primary outcome was the time until the first acute respiratory infection and there was not a statistically significant difference in the median time, though it was somewhat shorter for the intervention group. The proportion of participants with 1 or more acute respiratory infections was a little higher for the intervention group, and the duration was nonsignificantly higher. For upper respiratory tract infections in particular, the rate was significantly higher for the intervention group. The rate was nonsignificantly higher for lower respiratory infections. At baseline, the mean/standard deviation vitamin d levels were 42.4 (23.4) nom/l for the intervention group and 43.6 (22.6) for the control group. After 2 months, this was 65.5 (19.8) and 52.9 (21.7), and after 12 months, this was 85.3 (24.3) and 59.1 (26.0).
Vitamin D3 Supplementation In Patients With Frequent Respiratory Tract Infections: A Randomised And Double-blind Intervention Study
In a randomized, double-blind 140 participants with antibody deficiencies or frequent respiratory tract infections took placebo-controlled trial- 4000 IU or placebo daily for 1 year. The primary outcome was a composite infectious score based on daily patient-reported questionnaire of the respiratory tract, ear, sinus, malaise, and use of antibiotics. The total score and use of antibiotics saw statistically significant reductions compared with placebo both when unadjusted and adjusted, while airway, ear, sinus, and malaise were nonsignificantly reduced. Mean baseline levels of vitamin D were 46.9 for placebo and 51.5 nmol/l in the intervention group, which largely stayed the same for placebo and increased considerably for Staphylococcus aureus infections and fungal was significantly reduced in the vitamin D group compared with placebo, though Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catharralis, Enterobacteriacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were only nonsignificantly reduced, except for the first which was roughly the same. The placebo group saw significantly more cardiovascular and almost significantly more gastrointestinal adverse events.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 260 African American women over the age of 60 took enough vitamin D to increase their levels above 30 ng/ml (mean dose 1465 IU daily) or placebo for 3 years. 71 participants dropped out of the trial before the end of 3 years. There was no difference in the rate of acute respiratory infections between participants throughout most of the study, and not after 3 months or the end of 3 years compared with the previous visit. Those in the lowest tertile of vitamin D levels saw fewer infections was levels increased towards the upper end, but this wasn't statistically significant. At baseline, mean and SD levels of vitamin D were 22.2 ± 6.9, 21.5 ± 6.5 , and 1.8 ± 6.7 ng/ml. 90% of the supplement group maintained levels higher than the threshold.
Vitamin D Supplementation To Prevent Infections: A Sub-study Of A Randomised Placebo-controlled Trial In Older People (RECORD Trial, ISRCTN 51647438)
In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with unclear blinding, 5292 participants were given 800 IU of vitamin D, 1 g of calcium, the combination, or placebo for 24-62 months. 3444 participants responded to a questionnaire asking if they had experienced an infection or received antibiotics in the previous week during March (when people at their location had the lowest vitamin D levels). Those who were still taking their supplements reported infection rates of 17.2% in the vitamin D groups and 18.8% in placebo. After adjusting for f gender, age, type of enrolling fracture and time since fracture, the odds ratio was 0.90, with 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.07. For antibiotic use, the percentages were 6.4%, and 7.5, and the adjusted odds ratio was 0.84, 95% with CI 0.64 to 1.09.
Effect Of Monthly High-dose Vitamin D Supplementation On Acute Respiratory Infections In Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5,110 adults took 200,000 IU of vitamin D or placebo initially and 100,00 monthly or placebo starting in May of 2011 and extending as long as November of 2013. The primary outcome was the rate of acute respiratory infections, and there were no statistically significant or notable differences between groups for total respiratory infections or upper or lower respiratory infections. At baseline, levels of vitamin D were (mean and SD) 63.7 (23.6) in the vitamin D group and 63.0 (23.5) in the placebo group. After 6 months, levels in the placebo group had increased somewhat (less than 20) while the vitamin D group roughly troubled. Afterward, vitamin D remained largely the same while the placebo group returned to baseline (figure 2).
Effect Of Vitamin D Supplementation To Reduce Respiratory Infections In Children And Adolescents In Vietnam: A Randomized Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1300 children were given 14,000IU of vitamin D or placebo weekly for 8 months. The primary outcome was influenza infection, and there was no statistically significant difference between groups, though there was a nonsignificant reduction in the first year (supplementation persisted for 8 months out of that first year, but not afterward). There was, however, a statistically significant reduction in non-influenza viral infections at one year and on average, over 2.
Winter Cholecalciferol Supplementation At 55°N Has Little Effect On Markers Of Innate Immune Defense In Healthy Children Aged 4-8 years: A Secondary Analysis From A Randomized Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 118 healthy 4-8-year-olds were given 10 or 20 µg/day of vitamin D or placebo for 20 weeks from October to March at 55°N. This was a secondary analysis of another study. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of respiratory infections between groups. Muscosa-related illness was increased more in the placebo group, but there were no statistically significant differences. Gene expression was higher in the vitamin D groups for S100A9 (p-0.06 for high dose compared with placebo. There was less of a reduction in LCN2 expression for the vitamin d groups, though the difference wasn't significant. DEFB4 was reduced the most in the low dose group, followed by the placebo group, and increased in the high dose group, but the difference wasn't significant. IL-8 expression was reduced lies in the high dose group than the others, and the vitamin D groups saw less of a reduction in RSAD2 expression, with the placebo change being statistically significant compared with baseline but the vitamin D groups not being. Plasma cathelicidin, LPS-induced IL-6, and LPS-induced cathelicidin weren't different between groups, while LPS-induced IL-9 was higher during high dose supplementation than the other groups. The low dose group had vitamin D levels at baseline were 55.2±10.8 nmol/L in the placebo group, 56.9±12.7 in the low dose group, and 58.1±13.5 in the high dose group and at 20 weeks was 31.1±7.5 in the placebo group, 61.8±10.6 in the low dose group, and 75.8±11.5in the high dose group.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 230 mother-infant pairs were given 3000µg/month of vitamin D for the mother, or 10µg to the infant, or placebo for 9 months. The primary outcome was the infant's vitamin D levels at 3.5 months and they were significantly higher in both vitamin D groups compared with placebo and not notably different than each other. The parathyroid hormone levels of the mothers were significantly lower in the group where the mothers received supplementation than the others, and the baby's parathyroid levels were significantly lower in both vitamin D groups than placebo, with no notable differences. Alkaline phosphatase for the infants was significantly lower in the vitamin D groups. The number of days the infants had respiratory or diarrhoeal infection was significantly lower in the vitamin D groups. 78 pairs didn't complete the trial and weren't included in the primary analysis.
Vitamin D Supplementation To Prevent Acute Respiratory Infections: Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis
An individual participant data meta-analysis was performed with 25 eligible studies and 11,321 participants aged from 0-95. The major outcome of interest was the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). The eligibility criteria were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that used vitamin D, of any duration, and analyzed acute respiratory infections. The meta-analysis was a random-effects model adjusted for age, sex, and study duration, and the outcomes specifically were the proportion of participants experiencing at least one ARI, ARI rate, and time to first ARI. Overall, the proportion of participants with at least one ARI was modestly but statistically significantly lower for vitamin D when adjusted. For those with vitamin D levels of less than 25 nmol/L, this was considerably more potent than those with higher levels, and only statistically significant for those with low levels. Bolus doses were significantly less effective than non-Bolus doses, though there was a smaller statistically significant reduction for those with higher levels of vitamin D for daily/weekly supplementation, but not for bolus doses. The event rate was slightly but significantly lower overall in the vitamin D groups, and more notably, lower with low vitamin D levels, whereas there wasn't an effect bolus dose. The time until the first infection was nonsignificantly longer when in the vitamin D group, with no significant effect of baseline status or bolus dose. A protective effect against asthma exacerbation was found, but not for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There wasn't a significantly different rate of serious adverse events or mortality between groups. Overall, the studies were of low risk for bias.
Effects Of Vitamin D Supplementation To Children Diagnosed With Pneumonia In Kabul: A Randomised Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 453 children 1 week to 3 years with pneumonia were given either 100,000 IU upon admission to hospital, or placebo. There was no statistically significant difference between groups when it come to the mean number of days until recovery or the number who covered within 24 hours after admission. There was a statistically significant reduction in the rate of repeated infection.
Weekly cholecalciferol supplementation results in significant reductions in infection risk among the vitamin D deficient: results from the CIPRIS pilot RCT
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 34 participants were given 20,000 IU of vitamin D weekly or placebo for 17 weeks. The primary outcome was the time to first infection, and this wasn't actually measured. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for total infection risk over the course of the study, or different in infection duration or severity, though the risk of infection was somewhat lower for the vitamin D group and infection duration was somewhat higher. Vitamin D levels 50 nmol/l or lower were associated with greater reductions in the vitamin D group than the placebo group, though only 40 or less when adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and physical activity. Vitamin D levels were (mean, SD, range) 76.4 (27.3; 36–132) for the placebo group and 60.5 (13.9; 32–78) nmol/L for the vitamin D group at baseline, which increased in the vitamin D group to 100.7 and decreased in the placebo group to 56.0 on average, though was even higher and lower, respectively, at the end of 4 months (figure 1).
Reduced Primary Care Respiratory Infection Visits Following Pregnancy And Infancy Vitamin D Supplementation: A Randomised Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 260 pregnant women took placebo, 1000 IU throughout pregnancy for the mothers, and 400 IU from birth to 6 months, or 2000 IU and 800, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in the high dose group for freedom from acute respiratory infection doctor visits but not the total number. There were no statistically significant differences for other reasons to see the doctor. There were no statistically significant differences for children from birth to 6 months old, though, after 6 months, the high dose group saw a statistically significant reduction in the number of total respiratory infection visits and greater freedom from doctor visits for acute respiratory infections and total infections. There were no statistically significant differences for hospitalization from any cause.
Zinc Lozenges And The Common Cold: A Meta-analysis Comparing Zinc Acetate And Zinc Gluconate, And The Role Of Zinc Dosage
A meta-analysis was conducted on placebo-controlled trials using zinc lozenges for naturally acquired common colds using a dose of over 75 mg daily. 7 Trials were included, 3 using zinc acetate, and 4 using zinc gluconate. All trials were double-blind. There was a statistically significant reduction in overall cold duration and in both zinc gluconate and acetate trials, with zinc acetate being somewhat more effective.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants suffering from common colds were given zinc gluconate lozenges containing 23 mg of elemental zinc, initially two at once, and then one every 2 hours, not exceeding 12 for adults or 9 for youths, while children under 27 kg received half the dose, not exceeding 6 tablets daily. This persisted for 7 days. The analysis was restricted to the 65 participants who had reported being sick for 3 days or less before starting the trial and had continued taking their lozenges throughout the trial. The zinc group saw a significantly faster rate of becoming asymptomatic, and at the end of 7 days. The prevalence of symptoms was significantly less in the zinc group. Symptom severity at every time point was also significantly lower in the zinc group. There were notably more adverse events in the zinc group, with mouth irritation, distortion of taste, nausea, and complaints about the lozenges being unpalatable being noticeably greater in the zinc group.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 participants with a common cold no more than 2 days old were given placebo or lozenges containing 23.7 mg of elemental zinc from zinc gluconate-glycine to be taken as needed but not less than every 2 hours for a maximum of 8 per day, for 7 days. 14 participants withdrew from the trial. The percentage of symptomatic patients was statistically significantly different on the 7th, with roughly 5% symptomatic in the zinc group and 25-30% in the placebo group. The difference largely derived from drainage and congestion issues, though a small percentage of scratchy throat, sneezing, and hoarseness were present in the placebo group. In contrast, the entire zinc group was asymptomatic.
Zinc Gluconate Lozenges For Treating The Common Cold. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 participants with a common cold that had persisted for 24 hours or less before enrollment were given placebo or lozenges containing 13.3 mg elemental zinc from zinc gluconate every 2 hours until resolution of all symptoms. There was a notable and statistically significant reduction in the duration of colds, with a statistically significant reduction in the duration of nasal symptoms, throat symptoms, cough, headache, hoarseness, nasal congestion, nasal drainage, and sore throat, but not muscle ache, scratchy throat, sneezing, or fever (though nobody in the trial had a fever). Adverse events were higher in the zinc group, largely being attributable to nausea and bad taste.
Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of the effectiveness of zinc acetate lozenges on common cold symptoms in allergy-tested subjects
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 102 participants with common colds were given 9 mg of zinc from zinc acetate every 1.5 hours while awake for the first day and ever 2 hours after that for 14 days or until all symptoms ceased. The duration participants remained symptomatic, and the duration of the longest-lasting symptom was significantly shorter for the zinc group than the placebo group, while there wasn't a statistically significant difference for the severity of symptoms. In particular, the duration of sneezing, nasal drainage symptoms, nasal congestion, and hoarseness were the most affected by zinc.
Duration Of Symptoms And Plasma Cytokine Levels In Patients With The Common Cold Treated With Zinc Acetate. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 participants with the common cold were given lozenges containing 12.8 mg of elemental zinc from zinc acetate and instructed to take one every 2 to 3 hours while awake for as long as they had cold symptoms or placebo. The primary outcome was the average duration of cold symptoms, and there was a statistically significant greater reduction in the zinc group. The specific symptoms with statistically significant reductions were nasal discharge, congestion, and cough. Severity was also significantly lower overall throughout 12 days. There weren't statistically significant differences between groups for soluble interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor, or neopterin.
Duration And Severity Of Symptoms And Levels Of Plasma Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor, And Adhesion Molecules In Patients With Common Cold Treated With Zinc Acetate
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 participants with the common cold were given lozenges containing 13.3 mg of elemental zinc from zinc acetate or placebo and instructed to take 1 every 2 to 3 hours while awake for as long as they had cold symptoms. The primary outcome was the average duration of cold symptoms, and there was a statistically significant greater reduction in the zinc group. The specific symptoms that were statistically significant were cough, muscle ache, and nasal discharge. Soluble interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was significantly increased by zinc, while soluble intercellular adhesion molecule was decreased, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor was nonsignificantly reduced, while soluble vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule wasn't notably different. There weren't notable differences in adverse events between groups.
In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, 273 participants who were given an experimental rhinovirus type 39 virus and 281 who had acquired natural colds were given lozenges containing 13.3 mg of elemental zinc from zinc gluconate, or 5 mg or 11.5 mg from zinc acetate and asked to take them every 2-3 waking hours (6 maximum) for up to 14 days. The primary outcome was the duration of cold symptoms. There was a statistically significant reduction in the duration of colds for experimental infection for zinc gluconate, but not the acetate groups, and none of the group saw a statistically significant reduction in severity compared with placebo during the 3 days that it was tested. For natural colds, there wasn't a statistically significant reduction for any of the groups for duration or severity.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 healthy children 8-13 years old were given 15 mg of zinc bis-glycinate chelate once daily or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any symptom of cold at any time during the 3-months. There was notably less cough and rhinorrhoea but more fever in the zinc group, but none of the differences were statistically significant. There was less vomiting, diarrhea, antibiotic use, school absence, or cold-related school absence, though none of these differences were statistically significant either. The number of participants with at least one symptom of coughs, fever, and rhinorrhoea wasn't different between groups, but the number experiencing 2 or 3 was nonsignificantly lower. Coughs and rhinorrhoea lasted for significantly less time in the zinc groups.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 69 healthy participants were experimentally infected with 10² TCID₅₀ human rhinovirus-2 and 12 of them developed colds of sufficient intensity. Those 12 participants took placebo or 23 mg of zinc from zinc gluconate 6 times daily for 6 days. There was a notable reduction in clinical symptom severity score in the zinc group as compared with placebo, and was only statistically significant on the 4th and 5th days. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 participants took zinc or placebo every 2 hours when awake up to 12 per day starting 24 hours before being challenged with the virus and for 3.5 days afterward. There was a somewhat lower rate of developing a cold in the zinc group, and clinical severity score was generally somewhat lower throughout the study in the zinc group, though was only statistically significantly different on the 2nd day
Two Randomized Controlled Trials Of Zinc Gluconate Lozenge Therapy Of Experimentally Induced Rhinovirus Colds
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 32 participants were exposed to rhinovirus type 39 and given lozenges containing zinc 23 mg of elemental zinc from zinc gluconate or placebo every 2 hours for a total of 8 daily starting on day 2 after exposure and persisting for 5 days. There was a comparable infection rate between groups and a statistically significant reduction in virus-positive days in the zinc group. Symptom scores were largely comparable between groups, though the zinc group used more paper tissue. In another trial, 45 participants were exposed to rhinovirus 13 and took the same dose but starting on the first day 2 hours after exposure. There wasn't a statistically significant difference between groups for frequency, severity, or duration of colds.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 174 participants with a diagnosis of an acute upper respiratory tract infection took placebo or an initial dose of 4 lozenges with 11.5 mg of elemental zinc from zinc gluconate followed by 2 lozenges every 2 hours while awake for 7 days or until 24 hours after the disappearance of the last symptom. 64 participants were excluded from the analysis for not taking enough of the intervention or were lost to follow-up. There wasn't a statistically significant difference between groups for the proportion of subjects who had symptoms on each day of treatment. On the 7th day, there was a small, nonsignificant advantage of zinc compared with placebo (12.6% p=0.09). Severity in the zinc group was significantly lower from days 4 to 7, though it was roughly a 7 to 8% difference. Nausea, altered taste, dry mouth, abdominal pain, and headaches were more common for the zinc group, while dizziness and weakness were more common for placebo. The former 3 being particularly relevant.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 253 participants were given lozenges containing 13 mg of elemental zinc from zinc acetate or placebo and instructed to use them 6 times per day for a maximum of 5 times if they experienced a cold. 87 participants caught a cold, and the primary outcome was the rate of recovery. The participants who took zinc recovered more slowly on average than the placebo group, though the difference wasn't statistically significant. There were more adverse events in the zinc group, but they were largely due to 'taste problems,' and not stomach ache.
The immune response is measured by how fast and how effective the immune system can neutralize any kind of sickness, being viruses, bacteria or other pathogens.
Table of negative interactions
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