D-ribose is a type of carbohydrate that works in the production of energy, DNA, and RNA. ATP, the energy molecule used by all the cells of the body is derived from ribose.
- Origin: Nonessential, Synthetic
- Source: Mushrooms, Meat, Cheese, Milk, Eggs.
- Type: Carbohydrate
- Age Range: Adults (18-60), Seniors (>60)
- Toxicity: May be toxic in high doses
- Outcomes: Cardiovascular Health, Heart Protection
What are D-Ribose benefits?
Table of relations
Published articles about D-Ribose and Heart Protection
After oral ingestion of Glycine-Propionyl L-Carnitine, markers of lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced at 1g and 3g, although not significantly different between dosages. Nitric Oxide levels were increased with 3g, but did not change with 1g.
L-Carnitine Supplementation For Adults With End-stage Kidney Disease Requiring Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis
When assessing all trials in persons on maintenance dialysis using supplementation of L-carnitine (any form) for a duration longer than two weeks, it was confirmed that there was a reduction in LDL cholesterol (not deemed clinically significant but reaching a mean reduction of −5.82mg/dL) and a reduction in C-reactive protein (clinically significant, a reduction of −3.65mg/L) although no other biomarker including those relating to erythropoietin dosage and hematocrit were affected. No adverse effects of L-carnitine supplementation were reported in any trial.
Levocarnitine Administration In Elderly Subjects With Rapid Muscle Fatigue: Effect On Body Composition, Lipid Profile And Fatigue
In elderly persons consuming 2g of L-carnitine daily over a period of 30 days was associated with improvements on blood lipid parameters (ApoE, ApoA, LDL-C, HDL-C) and body composition as well as less fatigue; both mental and physical.
Effect Of Oral L-carnitine Administration On Insulin Sensitivity And Lipid Profile In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
12 type II diabetics were divided into two groups, in which one received 3g of L-Carnitine daily, in three doses of 1g with meals for 4 weeks. No significant changes were seen in basal lipid profile or insulin sensitivity.
In this randomized controlled trial, 230 individuals with acne underwent treatment with isotretinoin (Accutane) for 45 days. Of the 40 who developed myalgia (muscle pain) as a side effect, half received 100mg/kg L-Carnitine and half received a placebo every 24 hours.
L-Carnitine Supplementation Improved Clinical Status Without Changing Oxidative Stress And Lipid Profile In Women With Knee Osteoarthritis
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 participants with osteoarthritis took 750 mg of l-carnitine tartrate or placebo for 8 weeks. Malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity were reduced but the difference compared with placebo wasn't statistically significant. There weren't statistically significant differences for triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, weight, or body mass index.
Comparison Between Orlistat Plus L-carnitine And Orlistat Alone On Inflammation Parameters In Obese Diabetic Patients
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 258 participants with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and obesity took 2 g of l-carnitine daily with or without orlistat for 1 year. There was a small but statistically significant greater reduction in body weight but not BMI in the carnitine group. HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, and insulin sensitivity were also improved statistically significantly more, while fasting insulin wasn't. LDL and total cholesterol but not HDL or triglycerides were improved significantly more. Adiponectin, but not TNF-a, vaspin, or hs-CRP, was improved significantly more, though the reduction was generally greater for carnitine.
Comparative Study To Evaluate The Effect Of L-carnitine Plus Glimepiride Versus Glimepiride Alone On Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetic Patients
In a randomized, controlled trial 72 participants with type 2 diabetes took glimepiride alone or with 2 g of l-carnitine daily for 6 months. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and increase in IRAPe in the carnitine group. TNF-A Visfatin, LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL all improved significantly more. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for BMI or blood pressure.
L-carnitine Ameliorated Fasting-induced Fatigue, Hunger, And Metabolic Abnormalities In Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Study
In this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial, 30 participants with metabolic syndrome took for 7 days. The primary outcome was weight loss, and there was a statistically significant greater reduction in body mass and waist circumference, but not hip circumference. There was also a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol, but not any other lipid measure. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in fasting insulin and GGT but not fasting glucose, insulin resistance, c-reactive protein, uric acid, free fatty acids, AST, or ALT, though many were close. The carnitine group perceived less hunger and reported less fatigue.
Carnitine supplementation improves metabolic flexibility and skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine formation in volunteers with impaired glucose tolerance: A randomised controlled trial
In a randomized, double-blind crossover trial, 12 healthy participants and 11 with impaired glucose tolerance took 2000 mg of l-carnitine tartrate for 36 days with a month of washout in between. Fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, liver enzymes, and lipid profile didn't show a statistically significant difference between groups for those with glucose tolerance. Metabolic flexibility during a high energy meal test was statistically significantly improved in the carnitine group.
Effects Of Combination Of Sibutramine And L-carnitine Compared With Sibutramine Monotherapy On Inflammatory Parameters In Diabetic Patients
In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 254 participants with type 2 diabetes took sibutramine 10 mg or sibutramine with 2 g of l-carnitine daily for 12 months. There was statistically significantly more improvement in weight, HbA1c, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and adiponectin compared with the control group. The other outcomes (as seen in the values boxes) were not significantly different, but many showed a trend towards a difference.
Blood Pressure And Metabolic Effects Of Acetyl-l-Carnitine In Type 2 Diabetes: DIABASI Randomized Controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controled trial, 229 participants with hypertension and dyslipidemic type 2 diabetes took 1000 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine twice daily in addition to simvastatin, or only simvastatin for 6 months. The primary outcome was systolic blood pressure, and there wasn't an apparent benefit, nor for diastolic blood pressure, weight, HbA1c, insulin, insulin sensitivity, glucose disposal rate, lipid profile, or kidney function. There weren't notable differences in adverse events.
In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 50 participants with hyperthyroidism took 2 or 4 g of carnitine daily for the first 4 months, placebo for the last 2 months, or 2 months of placebo followed by 2 months of carnitine, followed by 2 more months of placebo, while taking T4. There was also a control group that didn't receive carnitine. In both groups, all symptoms improved statistically significantly besides body weight; these include asthenia, dyspnea, palpitations, nervousness, insomnia, tremors, knee reflexes, and body weight. Asthenia improved significantly more in the group that received 2 months of 4 g of carnitine relative to 2 g, and there were no statistically significant differences in symptoms by dose for the other measures. Total cholesterol and urinary OH-P in the 2-month group and urinary OH-P in the 4-month group. Bone mineral density was improved by carnitine but the difference wasn't statistically significant compared with control.
L-carnitine Supplementation For The Management Of Fatigue In Patients With Hypothyroidism On Levothyroxine Treatment: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
In 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 participants with primary hypothyroidism who were taking levothyroxine took 1 g of l-carnitine daily or placebo. The primary outcome was fatigue, and there was a statistically significantly greater reduction in mental fatigue with carnitine, but a nonsignificant reduction with physical fatigue and fatigue severity index. When considered as a percentage who saw improvement, the carnitine group saw statistically significant improvements for all. Younger (less than 50) participants saw greater effects. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for body composition, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, HbA1c, lipid panel, or thyroid hormones. There weren't notable differences in adverse events.
The Effects Of Oral L-carnitine Treatment On Blood Lipid Metabolism And The Body Fat Content In The Diabetic Patient
In a randomized, double-blind trial, 46 participants with diabetes took 3 g of l-carnitine daily for 12 weeks. There was a greater reduction in body weight and BMI, but the difference wasn't statistically significant. There was a greater reduction in waist-hip ratio that was statistically significant compared with baseline, while the change wasn't for placebo. Carnitine performed better for fasting glucose and HbA1c but nonsignificantly. Triglycerides were reduced statistically significantly more in the carnitine group whereas total cholesterol, Apo-A1, Apo-B (g/L), and HDL, HDL2, and HDL 3 weren't statistically significant. The weight loss for the carnitine group came more from trunk fat than any of the limbs.
Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide Following Cessation Of L-carnitine Supplementation In Healthy Aged Women
Eighteen female participants visited the laboratory after 24 weeks of taking 1500 mg of L-carnitine-L-tartrate or isonitrogenous placebo per day. They returned 4 and 12 months after cessation of supplementation for more testing. The carnitine group saw substantially higher TMAO concentrations by the end of supplementation, which reverted to the placebo levels after 4 months. There weren't statistically significant differences for blood lipids, though. Levels of immune cells weren't statistically significantly different.
Evaluation of L-Carnitine Efficacy in the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Double Blind Pilot Study
In a randomized, double-blind pilot study, 60 type 2 diabetes patients with NAFLD took for 750 mg of l-carnitine 3 times daily for 6 months or placebo. AST and ALT shows a statistically significantly greater improvement for the carnitine group, while cholesterol, triglycerides, and HbA1c didn't.
Effect Of Carnitine-orotate Complex On Glucose Metabolism And Fatty Liver: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 52 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and fatty liver took 900 mg of l-carnitine in combination with metformin or placebo in combination with metformin daily for 12 weeks. ALT was the primary outcome, and there was a statistically significantly greater reduction in the carnitine group, but not for AST or ALP. The reduction in hs-CRP and 8-OHdG were also statistically significant, though lipid profile, metabolic markers, blood pressure, and everything else wasn't.
Oral Carnitine Supplementation Reduces Body Weight And Insulin Resistance In Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of L-carnitine on weight loss, and glycaemic and lipid profiles in females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). For 12 weeks, the intervention group (n = 30) took 250 mg/day L-carnitine while the control group (n = 30) took a placebo. At the studies end, the L-carnitine saw small to moderate improvements in weight, BMI, WC, HC, and glycaemic control. It did not affect lipid profiles or free testosterone.
Efficacy And Tolerability Of Combined Treatment With L-carnitine And Simvastatin In Lowering Lipoprotein(a) Serum Levels In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
In a randomized, open-label trial, 52 participants with type 2 diabetes and high Lp(A) levels took simvastatin alone or with 2 g of L-carnitine for 60 days. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in lipoprotein A in the combination group, though no superior for the rest of the lipid profile, including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B.
Effect Of L-carnitine On Plasma Glycemic And Lipidemic Profile In Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 35 participants with type 2 diabetes who were taking anti-diabetic drugs took a placebo or 3 g of L-carnitine daily divided into 3 doses, one at each meal, for 12 weeks. There was a statistically significantly greater reduction in fasting glucose and an increase in triglycerides and Apo B and Apo A-I in the carnitine group. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, or Lp(a).
Effects Of Simvastatin And Carnitine Versus Simvastatin On Lipoprotein(a) And Apoprotein(a) In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 75 participants with type 2 diabetes took simvastatin with or without 2 g of carnitine daily for 4 months. There was a statistically significantly greater reduction in blood glucose, triglycerides, ApoA1, LP(a), and Apo(a), and an increase in HDL. There wasn't a statistically significant difference in BMI or HbA1c.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 81 participants with type 2 diabetes took 2 g of L-carnitine daily or placebo in combination with seeing a dietician and consuming a low-fat weight-loss diet for 3 months. The primary outcome was change in lipid profile, and the carnitine group saw a greater, statistically significant improvement in total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, and Apolipoprotein B-100, and an increase in Apolipoprotein A1. There was a greater, statistically significant reduction in oxidized LDL cholesterol in the carnitine group, as well as a general reduction in oxidative stress.
Effect Of Lysine, Vitamin B(6), And Carnitine Supplementation On The Lipid Profile Of Male Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia: A 12-week, Open-label, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial
In a randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled trial, 40 participants with hypertriglyceridemia took 1 g of carnitine, placebo, or various other supplements (which won't be mentioned, for our purposes, the relevant comparison is carnitine vs. placebo) for 12 weeks. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for change in weight, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and fasting glucose.
In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 47 CAD patients took 1 g of L-carnitine or placebo daily for 12 weeks. There was statistically significantly greater superoxide dismutase activity, HDL, and APO-A1 in the carnitine group, though it's unclear if this was due to differences at baseline. There weren't statistically significant differences for total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL or Apo-B.
Effects Of Combined Treatment With Simvastatin And L-carnitine On Triglyceride Levels In Diabetic Patients With Hyperlipidaemia
In a randomized, open-label trial, 32 patients with type 2 diabetes and abnormal lipid concentrations took 4 g of L-carnitine or placebo with simvastatin daily for 2 months. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in triglycerides in the carnitine group. There was a nonsignificant greater increase in HDL and reduction in total cholesterol.
L-Carnitine/Simvastatin Reduces Lipoprotein (a) Levels Compared With Simvastatin Monotherapy: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 58 participants with hyperlipidemia took 2 g of L-carnitine daily with simvastatin or just simvastatin for 12 weeks. Participants followed a low-calorie weight loss diet. The primary outcome was the change in Lp(a), and there was a statistically significantly greater reduction in the carnitine group. There weren't statistically significant or meaningful differences for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, Apolipoprotein A-1, or Apolipoprotein B.
Efficacy Of L-carnitine Supplementation For Management Of Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review And Dose-response Meta-analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials
This was a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the impact of carnitine supplements on lipid profile. In total, 55 trials were included. There was a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides when taking carnitine. There was a small, statistically significant increase in HDL.
Effect of carnitine supplementation on progression of carotid plaque in the metabolic syndrome: the ECoM study
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 177 participants with metabolic syndrome took 2 g of L-carnitine or placebo daily for 6 months. There wasn't a statistically significant difference for total plaque volume, but plaque stenosis increased significantly more in the carnitine group than the placebo group. Total and LDL cholesterol were higher in the L-carnitine group.
The Effect Of L-carnitine On Plasma Lipoprotein(a) Levels In Hypercholesterolemic Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 94 participants with hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes took 2 g of L-carnitine or placebo daily for 6 months. There was a statistically significant greater reduction in lipoprotein A in the carnitine group. There weren't statistically significant differences between groups for BMI, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, Apo A-1, or Apo B.
L-Carnitine's Effect On The Biomarkers Of Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials
This was a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials investigating the effects of l-carnitine for at least two weeks on metabolic syndrome outcomes, including waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL. The studies had to be without the use of other drugs. It included 9 trials that included 508 participants. Doses ranged from 0.75 to 3 g per day and 2 g was the most common dose. The studies weren't generally at a high risk of bias, but none stood out as particularly rigorous. Based on two studies, there was a statistically significant reduction in waist circumference and systolic but not quite diastolic blood pressure. There was a statistically reduction in fasting glucose, triglycerides, and anHDL increase based on 5-6 studies, though the differences weren't statistically significant. The subgroup analysis found greater effects for more severe metabolic syndrome and greater effects for higher carnitine doses, but the comparisons were based on few studies.
Effects Of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation On Liver Mitochondrial Function And Aerobic Capacity In Adolescent Athletes
After supplementation of 100mg CoQ10 daily, serum levels of CoQ10 were increased while they were decreased in the placebo group due to exercise. Normalized oxidation rates were seen with CoQ10 while increases in oxidation and lipid peroxidation were seen in placebo. Despite the above beneficial trends, no significant effects on exercise performance were noted.
In a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, 15 exercise-trained participants took 300 mg of ubiquinol daily and placebo for four weeks, separated by a 3-week washout period. Participants maintained their exercise routines and were subjected to graded exercise tests on treadmills and cycle sprint tests on a cycle ergometer. There were no statistically significant differences in heart rate, perceived exertion, or time on the treadmill test, and no statistically significant differences in heart rate, perceived exertion, peak power, mean power, or total work on the cycling test. There were no statistically significant differences in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, or total cholesterol at rest, nor were there statistically significant differences in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, or lactate during the exercise tests.
In persons with chronic heart failure, CoQ10 at 300mg daily (in three divided dosages) was able to increase functional capacity and endothelial function after 4 weeks of supplementation. Benefits of CoQ10 on one of the parameters of heart health (systolic wall thickening index) was synergistic with exercise.
Effect Of Coenzyme Q10 Administration On Endothelial Function And Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase In Patients With Ischaemic Heart Disease: A Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Study
CoQ10 was shown to increase endothelial function secondary to extracellular Superoxide dismustase activity, and was hypothesized to negate adverse effects of nitric oxide oxidation. Improvements in VO(2) max were seen in this population of persons with ischaemic heart disease at 100mg daily.
D-Ribose Improves Diastolic Function And Quality Of Life In Congestive Heart Failure Patients: A Prospective Feasibility Study
This study used an exhaustive week-long exercise protocol (two sessions of cycling daily) where after the last session, as well as nine times more over the next three days, either the experimental group (200mg/kg D-ribose paired with 200mg/kg sucrose at each dose) or control group (200mg/kg maltodextrin replacing the D-ribose) were assessed after three days rest. Inclusion of D-ribose was associated with a greater rate of ATP replenishment in the tested muscle after three days when compared to placebo, and no difference between groups was noted after a single day of rest. No differences in glycogen resynthesis rates between D-ribose and maltodextrin. This was a crossover study.
At 0.125g/kg bodyweight, glutamine supplementation did not influence exercise capacity or markers of oxidative metabolism in person with COPD.
Supplementation of 80mg/kg glutamine in persons with chronic stable angina was associated with improved endurance and performance on a Bruce test when taken 40 minutes prior; this occurred alongside a plasma increase in glutamine.
Pycnogenol, French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Augments Endothelium-dependent Vasodilation In Humans
180mg of Pycnogenol for 2 weeks in otherwise healthy adult men was able to increase the acetylcholine-induced relaxation response in blood vessels, secondary to nitric oxide
Effects Of Pycnogenol On Endothelial Function In Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Cross-over Study
In persons with Coronary Artery Disease, Pycnogenol at 200mg daily for 8 weeks is associated with an improvement of blood flow independent of changes in blood pressure
Pycnogenol, French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Improves Endothelial Function Of Hypertensive Patients
A double-blind, placebo controlled study of 58 patients with hypertension evaluated the ability of pycnogenol (100 mg/ day over 12 weeks) to reduce the required dose of the anti-hypertensive medication nifedipine. The study found that subjects in the pycnogenol group were able to reduce the dose of nifedipine required to restore blood pressure levels to normal. While the placebo group required on average 21.5 mg of nifedipine to remain normotensive, the pycnogenol group required only 15 mg, a reduction of 6.5 mg.[PMID: 14659974]. The effects of pycnogenol alone on blood pressure were not evaluated in this study (since all patients remained on their current meds). Pycnogenol supplementation was also associated with improved blood flow and trended towards higher NO levels in serum. The evidence does suggest that pycnogenol has a modest blood pressure lowering effect that may complement the effects of other anti-hypertensive medications.
The heart is one of the most strong muscles in the body, as it works nonstop and very steady. But it can also fail, brought down by a poor diet and lack of exercise, smoking, infection, unlucky genes, etc. It's essential to your health to take care of your heart health.
Related videos about D-Ribose
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- ^ Omran H1, et al. D-Ribose improves diastolic function and quality of life in congestive heart failure patients: a prospective feasibility study. Eur J Heart Fail. (2003)
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- ^ Hellsten-Westing Y1, et al. Decreased resting levels of adenine nucleotides in human skeletal muscle after high-intensity training. J Appl Physiol (1985). (1993)
- ^ Srikuea R1, et al. Association of fibromyalgia with altered skeletal muscle characteristics which may contribute to postexertional fatigue in postmenopausal women. Arthritis Rheum. (2013)
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- ^ Gebhart B1, Jorgenson JA. Benefit of ribose in a patient with fibromyalgia. Pharmacotherapy. (2004)
- ^ a b Teitelbaum JE1, Johnson C, St Cyr J. The use of D-ribose in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. (2006)