Chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. As a supplement in higher doses than is found naturally, chondroitin is a popular treatment for osteoarthritis.
- Origin: Synthetic, Bacterial Fermentation
- Source: Bacteria
- Type: Glycosaminoglycan
- Age Range: Adults (18-60)
- Toxicity: There is no evidence of toxicity until now
- Outcomes: Bone and Joint Health, Joint Pain and Stiffness
What are Chondroitin benefits?
Table of relations
Published articles about Chondroitin and Joint Pain and Stiffness
Efficacy And Safety Of Meriva®, A Curcumin-phosphatidylcholine Complex, During Extended Administration In Osteoarthritis Patients
Curcumin, dosed at 1,000mg MERIVA (curcumin bound to phosphatidylcholine) taken in two divided dosages of 500mg, was safe and effective over a period of 8 months in alleviating clinical and biochemical symptoms of osteoarthritis in a population of middle-aged (43+/-2) persons with osteoarthritis. Reductions were noted in IL-6 (27%), IL-1b (65%), and cell adhesion factors.
A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms And Diagnostic Indicators In Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, And Parallel-Group Study
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 36 participants were assigned to take placebo, 500 mg, or 1,000 mg of a bioavailable curcuminoid extract (95% curcuminoids) for 3 months. The primary outcome was the efficacy of curcuminoids for reducing the symptoms if rheumatoid arthritis, as measured by DAS-28. The curcumin groups saw large reductions in their scores, which were statistically significant) within group), while the placebo group saw no change. The high dose group saw a greater reduction than the low dose group, but between-group statistics weren't provided. The same was the case for evaluation of pain on the vidual analog scale.The improvement in American College of Rheumatology assessment was large, statistically significant, and comparable for the curcumin groups, while the placebo group saw no improvement. There were no serious adverse events reported, and blood tests didn't reveal any worrying effects from curcumin. The curcumin groups saw a large, statistically significant reduction in c-reactive protein, with the high dose group seeing a greater reduction, while the placebo group saw a small increase which wasn't statistically significant. The reduction in erythrocyte sedimentation rate was dramatic for the curcumin groups, which was statistically significant for both, and with no notable difference between them. The placebo group saw a decrease which wasn't statistically significant or as great as the curcumin groups.
A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy and safety of a food ingredient, collagen hydrolysate, for improving joint comfort
In patients with osteoarthritis given 10g hydrolyzed collagen over six months appeared to reduce pain assessed by VAS and WOMAC, although no other parameter on WOMAC (stiffness, function, or total score) was affected by treatment relative to placebo.
A study in 60 people with advanced rheumatoid arthritis given supplementation of solubilized collagen (0.1mg for one month then 1mg for the next) noted a reduction in joint pain and stiffness to a degree greater than placebo, with four subjects reporting resolution of symptoms dependent on supplementation (as symptoms reemerged after three months supplement cessation).
Safety And Efficacy Of Undenatured Type II Collagen In The Treatment Of Osteoarthritis Of The Knee: A Clinical Trial
Supplementation of 40mg UC-II (undenatured CII) once daily for three months was able to improve symptoms of osteoarthritis as assessed by WOMAC, VAS, and Lequesne rating scales. The potency was comparable to a combination of glucosamine HCl (1,500mg) and chondroitin sulphate (1,200mg) on Lequesne and VAS, and more effective on WOMAC. There was no placebo control used in this study and medication was relatively well tolerated.
Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis With Oral Type II Collagen. Results Of A Multicenter, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial
Supplementation of four doses of CII to rheumatic patients (20mcg, 100mcg, 500mcg, or 2.5mg) over 24 weeks noted that the lower doses were associated with higher response rates than the higher doses, with the 19% response seen in placebo being outperformed by a 39% response in the 20mcg group (25% response in 2.5mg was not statistically significant). Response was determined by at least a 30% reduction in joint soreness with responses on ACR and the Paulus criteria, and when looking only at the 30% reduction in pain all treatment groups (excluding ACR and Paulus) performed somewhat equally. IgA and IgG antibodies were detected only in a few subjects, and appeared to predict responsiveness to therapy at all doses despite their specificity to CII or overall amounts being affected.
Undenatured Type II Collagen (UC-II®) For Joint Support: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study In Healthy Volunteers
40mg of undenatured CII daily for four months appeared to be able to increase joint mobility in subjects who reported non-pathological joint pain (no arthritic conditions) and both prolonged how long one could exercise before joint pain occurred while improving recovery speeds after exercise. Despite the benefits during exercise, there was no overall reduction in joint pain as assessed by KOOS (a subjective rating scale). Supplementation was not associated with any adverse effects.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 53 people with knee osteoarthritis were assigned to take 1,500 mg of a curcuminoid complex (95% curcuminoids) with 15 mg of piperine or placebo daily for 6 weeks. 25% of participants didn't complete the study and weren't analyzed. The primary outcome was the change in the Western Ontario And McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), which assessed osteoarthritis symptoms broadly, including pain, function, and stiffness. The curcuminoid group saw a notable, statistically significant reduction in the global WOMAC scale score and pain, and an improvement in function compared with the placebo group, but not for stiffness. The secondary outcomes were pain on a visual analog scale, and score on the Lequesne’s pain functional index and the curcuminoid group saw notable, statistically significant improvements compared with the placebo group for both. The participants in the curcuminoid group tended to use fewer NSAIDs over the course of the study.
Product-evaluation Registry Of Meriva®, A Curcumin-phosphatidylcholine Complex, For The Complementary Management Of Osteoarthritis
200mg of MERIVA, taken at 200mg daily, was able to reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis and joint pain as assessed by the WOMAC rating scale and improve physical performance. C-Reactive Protein decreased only in the group with higher CRP at baseline, although to a very large degree (168 to 11.3mg/L)
Comparative Evaluation Of The Pain-relieving Properties Of A Lecithinized Formulation Of Curcumin (Meriva(®)), Nimesulide, And Acetaminophen
2g of Meriva (curcumin phytosomes, conferring 400mg curcumin) appears to be able to reduce pain with a potency somewhat comparable to 2g acetominophen (trending to be more potent) and 100mg nimesulide (trending to be less potent) with most analgesic effects within 2-4 hours after ingestion.
Efficacy Of Turmeric (curcumin) In Pain And Postoperative Fatigue After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Double-blind, Randomized Placebo-controlled Study
When assessing curcumin against placebo in controlling post-operative pain when given at 500mg every 6 hours (4 doses daily); operation in question as a Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pain was reduced as per a 10-point interval rating scale, and emergency analgesic capsule (paracetamol at 650mg) usage was significantly less in the curcumin group (indicating less need for them). Post-operative fatigue was also less
Safety And Efficacy Of Curcuma Longa Extract In The Treatment Of Painful Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial
In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 120 participants with knee osteoarthritis were assigned to take either 1,000 mg of a turmeric extract (Turmacinᵀᴹ), 1,500 mg of glucosamine sulfate, the combination, or placebo daily for 6 weeks. The primary outcomes were pain, as assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster. Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and function as assessed by WOMAC. Pain on the VAS for the turmeric group was dramatically reduced compared with placebo and the combination group and was reduced more than in the glucosamine group, but this wasn't statistically significant. The reduction in WOMAC rating was also much larger and statistically significant compared with placebo, while only modestly larger than compared with placebo and the combination group. Clinical Global Impression change in the turmeric group was significantly greater than for placebo and glucosamine, but not for the combination, though the turmeric-only group saw a greater reduction. The joint tenderness, crepitation, effusion, and terminal limitation of movement were all significantly and potently reduced in the turmeric group compared with baseline, while the placebo group only saw modest reductions, none of which were statistically significant. No notable difference in adverse events was found compared with placebo, and participants in the turmeric group were less likely to use acetaminophen as a rescue medication.
Short-term Effects Of Highly-bioavailable Curcumin For Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Prospective Study
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 participants with knee osteoarthritis were assigned to take 180 mg of curcumin (Theracurcumin) or placebo daily for 8 weeks. 18% of participants didn't complete the study and weren't analyzed. The curcumin group saw a notable reduction in pain compared with the placebo group, which was only statistically significant for the subset of participants with initial VAS scores of 0.15. Osteoarthritis symptoms as measured by the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) were somewhat improved in the curcumin group compared with the placebo group, but the difference wasn't statistically significant. The curcumin group tended to use less celecoxib than the placebo group throughout the study.
Efficacy And Safety Of Curcumin And Its Combination With Boswellic Acid In Osteoarthritis: A Comparative, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 201 participants with degenerative hypertrophic osteoarthritis were assigned to take 1,500 mg curcuminoids (BCM-95), 1050 mg curcuminoids with 450 mg Boswellia serrata, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were osteoarthritis pain and function assessed by WOMAC, and physical performance was assessed by OARSI-recommended tests. Total WOMAC score was somewhat reduced in the curcumin and combination groups compared with placebo, but only the combination group saw a statistically significant reduction. Pain was significantly improved compared with placebo in the combination group, but not stiffness or function, and while the curcumin group saw improvements compared with placebo, none of these were statistically significant. For the OARSI-recommended tests, the curcumin group saw notable, statistically significant improvements compared with the placebo group for the chair stand test and fast-paced walk test speed, but not for the time up and go test, or stair climb test, though it did see improvements. The combination group saw statistically significant improvements for all. There were no notable differences in adverse events between the curcumin and placebo groups (3% and 5.6% respectively), and the combination group saw somewhat more than either (10.6%).
Efficacy And Safety Of Curcuma Domestica Extracts Compared With Ibuprofen In Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Multicenter Study
In a randomized, single-blind, trial, 367 participants with knee osteoarthritis were assigned to take 1,500 mg of a turmeric extract (total curcuminoids content between 75% and 85%) or 800 mg of ibuprofen daily for 4 weeks. The primary outcomes were pain, stiffness, and function on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Both groups saw notable reductions in all measures, with no clinical or statistically significant difference between them. Adverse events were observed in 35.7% of ibuprofen users and 29.7% of turmeric extract users, with no statistically significant difference.
A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Parallel-Group Study To Evaluate The Safety And Efficacy Of Curene® Versus Placebo In Reducing Symptoms Of Knee OA
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis were assigned to take 500 mg (>20% total curcuminoids) of a novel, highly bioavailable turmeric extract for 60 days. The primary outcome was a global score of osteoarthritis symptoms (WOMAC). The turmeric group saw a large, statistically significant improvement in all osteoarthritis symptoms compared with placebo, The turmeric extract group also saw a large and statistically significant reduction in pain compared with the placebo group, as measured by a visual analog scale. There was no noted difference in the rate of adverse events between groups, and the rate was low for both. The group that received the turmeric extract began to take less pain medication than the placebo group.
A Randomized, Pilot Study To Assess The Efficacy And Safety Of Curcumin In Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis
In a randomized, single-blind pilot trial, 45 participants with rheumatoid arthritis were assigned to take 500 mg of curcumin (BCM-95), 50 mg of diclofenac sodium, or the combination daily for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was an evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms (DAS28). All groups saw a large statistically significant (within-group) reduction in DAS. However, there weren't any notable differences between groups for the side of effect. Pain on the visual analog scale declined substantially in all groups, and the within-group changes were statistically significant. The curcumin and combination groups saw a somewhat greater reduction than the diclofenac sodium group, but no between-group statistics were provided. The decrease in symptoms according to the American College Of Rheumatology assessment was statistically significant for all groups, and comparable for all groups, with no between-group statistics provided. C-reactive protein levels were reduced in the curcumin and combination groups, with the curcumin group seeing the largest reduction, and the diclofenac sodium group not seeing any reduction. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, declined somewhat in all groups, but the within-group changes weren't statistically significant, and there weren't any notable differences between groups. The curcumin group didn't experience a notable rate of adverse events or see worrying changes in blood tests.
The Efficacy Of Curcuma Longa L. Extract As An Adjuvant Therapy In Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Control Trial
In a randomized, double-blind trial, 44 participants with knee osteoarthritis were assigned to take diclofenac alone or diclofenac with 500 mg of curcuminoids daily for 3 months. Both groups saw a similar reduction in pain as measured by a visual analog scale, with no statistically significant difference between them. For the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, function in sport and recreation, quality of life, and symptoms categorized as 'other' were similarly improved in both groups with no statistically significant difference. The curcumin group saw a more considerable improvement in function in daily living and pain, but these weren't statistically significant.
Safety And Efficacy Of Curcumin Versus Diclofenac In Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Open-label Parallel-arm Study
In a randomized, open-label comparator trial, 149 patients with knee osteoarthritis were allocated to take 500 mg of curcuminoids (BCM-95) 3 times per day or 50 mg of diclofenac twice per day for 28 days. The primary outcome was the improvement in pain on a visual analog scale (VAS), and the improvement in the curcumin group saw large and statistically significant compared with baseline and roughly the same as for diclofenac. Pain on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score was greatly improved in both groups as well, as was function and quality of life, without notable differences between them.
Curcuma Longa Extract Reduces Inflammatory And Oxidative Stress Biomarkers In Osteoarthritis Of Knee: A Four-month, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 160 patients with knee osteoarthritis were allocated to take 500 mg of curcuma longa extract or placebo daily for 4 months, alongside diclofenac. The primary outcomes were pain on a visual analog scale and osteoarthritis severity on the WOMAC scale, and the intervention group saw a modestly greater improvement in pain on the visual analog scale that was statistically significant and a somewhat greater improvement in pain on WOMAC (p=0.06). There was no difference in stiffness, though there was a small, statistically significant improvement in physical function that was statistically significant between groups. There was a greater reduction in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in the intervention group. Joint crepitation and effusion were also significantly reduced in the intervention group, and there were no meaningful differences in adverse events.
Glucosamine hydrochloride failed to cause a significant protective effect in osteoarthritis, while evidence on sulfate (statistically significant of a low magnitude) was said to be confounded with industry influence. No publication bias reported
The GAIT trial noted that 1500mg Glucosamine in isolation failed to significantly influence a reduction of pain in persons with osteoarthritis over 6 months; combination therapy with Chondroitin was effective only in the cohort of persons with more pain at baseline
Glucosamine Sulfate Use And Delay Of Progression Of Knee Osteoarthritis: A 3-year, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Study
The progression of osteoarthritis associated with 1,500mg Glucosamine sulfate for 3 years appeared to be reduced as assessed by joint space loss relative to placebo and pain.
Glucosamine Sulfate In The Treatment Of Knee Osteoarthritis Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Using Acetaminophen As A Side Comparator
1,500mg Glucosamine had equal efficay to 3g acetominophen for reducing joint pain in persons with osteoarthritis; this trial (the GUIDE trial) may be influenced by a producer of Glucosamine supplemnetation
Effectiveness Of Glucosamine For Symptoms Of Knee Osteoarthritis: Results From An Internet-based Randomized Double-blind Controlled Trial
(Internet based study) Mostly glucosamine sulfate, although a switch to hydrochloride for 20% of the sample was needed, failed to outperform placebo in regards to symptoms of osteoarthritis and pain.
In persons with knee osteoarthritis, supplemental Glucosamine at 1,500mg daily for 4 weeks was associated with greater pain reduction than placebo and a greater response rate to treatment (55% relative to 38% for glucosamine and placebo, respectively)
Structural And Symptomatic Efficacy Of Glucosamine And Chondroitin In Knee Osteoarthritis: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis
A meta-analysis of 15 studies (inclusive of glucosamine and combination therapy of glucosamine with chondroitin; 7 studies used glucosamine sulfate) noted a significant effect on all measured outcomes of glucosamine treatment. Funnel plot analysis failed to find evidence of publication bias, although it appeared to trend close (and was said to be from influence from smaller studies with more effect size)
Effects Of Glucosamine, Chondroitin, Or Placebo In Patients With Osteoarthritis Of Hip Or Knee: Network Meta-analysis
A network meta-analysis on glucosamine sulfate found statistically significant pain relief, but deemed that the clinical significance of this pain relief was minimal.
In a pilot study assessing the effects of cissus quadrangularis on joint pain in otherwise healthy men who had pain due to excessive exercise, 3,200mg cissus daily for eight weeks was able to reduce joint pain by 31% relative to baseline; a placebo control was not used in this study.
Treatment Of Osteoarthritis With Pycnogenol. The SVOS (San Valentino Osteo-arthrosis Study). Evaluation Of Signs, Symptoms, Physical Performance And Vascular Aspects
In persons with osteoarthritis given 100mg pycnogenol once daily for 3 months, supplementation was able to more than half (56% reduction) symptoms of osteoarhritis as assessed by the WOMAC rating scale. An improvement in functional scores and reduction in foot edema was also noted (parameter recorded under leg swelling).
Pycnogenol supplementation reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis
In persons with primary grade 1 osteoarthritic symptoms, supplementation of pycnogenol at 50mg thrice daily was noted to, over the course of 90 days, reduce pain and functional impairment associated with osteoarthritis in the range of 35-52% (depending on what was being measured). It took 90 days for this magnitude of benefit to be see, and although all but stiffness benefitted slightly by 60 days there was no effect on day 30.
Different types of Arthritis causes joints to be inflamed, thus they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are numerous of nutraceuticals that can be used to ease those symptoms.
Table of negative interactions
Related videos about Chondroitin
- ^ ANALYSIS OF MATRIX GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS (GAGS) IN URINARY STONES BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.
- ^ a b Conte A, et al. Biochemical and pharmacokinetic aspects of oral treatment with chondroitin sulfate. Arzneimittelforschung. (1995)
- ^ Schiraldi C, Cimini D, De Rosa M. Production of chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. (2010)
- ^ Conte A, et al. Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in man. Arzneimittelforschung. (1991)
- ^ a b Volpi N. Oral bioavailability of chondroitin sulfate (Condrosulf) and its constituents in healthy male volunteers. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. (2002)
- ^ a b c Jackson CG1, et al. The human pharmacokinetics of oral ingestion of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate taken separately or in combination. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. (2010)
- ^ Ronca G, Conte A. Metabolic fate of partially depolymerized shark chondroitin sulfate in man. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. (1993)
- ^ Deal CL, Moskowitz RW. Nutraceuticals as therapeutic agents in osteoarthritis. The role of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and collagen hydrolysate. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. (1999)
- ^ Bruyere O, Reginster JY. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate as therapeutic agents for knee and hip osteoarthritis. Drugs Aging. (2007)
- ^ Black C, et al. The clinical effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements in slowing or arresting progression of osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. (2009)
- ^ a b Wandel S, et al. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ. (2010)
- ^ Reichenbach S, et al. Meta-analysis: chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Ann Intern Med. (2007)
- ^ a b McAlindon TE, et al. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA. (2000)