Blueberries, Blueberry

Blueberries are a very popular fruit, low in calories and very healthy due to its content of antioxidants and phytochemicals. They are a good source of vitamins and may potentially regulate blood sugar levels and aid heart and brain health.

  • Origin: Plant Based
  • Source: Itself
  • Type: Antioxidants, Enzymes
  • Age Range: Adults (18-60), Seniors (>60)
  • Toxicity: There is no evidence of toxicity until now
  • Outcomes: Cognitive Function and Brain Health, Longevity & Anti-Aging, Memory, Anti-Oxidant, Cognition, Overall Well-Being

What are Blueberry benefits?

Blueberry is a fruit that contains many molecules called anthocyanins. These antioxidant compounds are often supplemented for their ability to improve cognition. Also known as ‘blueberry’, some regions do not have access to this food because of its plantation, so blueberry supplementation may be the best way not to lose the benefits it brings. Besides its antioxidant power, it prevents premature aging and helps the glycemic index, preserves the memory, and decreases the risk of cardiovascular problems due to the reduction of bad cholesterol. Discover in 3 steps how to improve your health and which supplements can help your organism, maybe blueberry is one of them.

Table of relations

Consistent effects
Strength of effects
Scientific articles
Longevity & Anti-Aging Longevity & Anti-Aging
Oral ingestion of berries or their extracts tends to scale back oxidative biomarkers and improve antioxidant status either acutely or with daily supplementation.
Longevity & Anti-Aging Longevity & Anti-Aging
A slight improvement in subjective well being and happiness has been noted in elderly persons given blueberries over a couple of weeks as a daily supplement.
Cognitive Function and Brain Health Cognitive Function and Brain Health
Supplementation of blueberry extract does appear effective in elderly persons with general cognitive decline, ready to improve cognition and memory.
Cognitive Function and Brain Health Cognitive Function and Brain Health
Memory formation in elderly subjects are often improved with daily supplementation of blueberries or their extract.

Cognitive Function and Brain Health Blueberry and Cognitive Function and Brain Health

Cognitive functions are brain skills divided into: memory, perception, language, executive functions, attention and praxis (ability to perform complex movements). These functions depend on healthy synapses and neurons, which require good overall brain functioning. Supplements can affect cognitive performance directly or indirectly. Direct effects can alter or participate in neurotransmissions and influence the brain's energy metabolism. The indirect effects include hormonal changes that affect the brain, and improvements in cognitive disorders such as anxiety, depression and insomnia.
  • Cognition

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension. Cognitive actions include thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem-solving. These are higher-level functions of the brain and include language, imagination, perception, and planning.

  • Memory

    Memory is the faculty by which the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information. It is a record of experience for guiding future action. There are short and long term memory and both can be improved by supplements and mental training.

Longevity & Anti-Aging Blueberry and Longevity & Anti-Aging

To live longer is necessary to live well, meaning that overall well-being, healthy organs, a healthy brain and good habits are taken into consideration when it comes to longevity. All of those circumstances require a healthy lifestyle, which works directly in the prevention of illnesses or conditions that might negatively influence your health. There are a lot nutraceutics and supplements that can help the body to stay safe and sound, just as it should be.
  • Anti-Oxidant

    Oxidation reactions occur naturally in all cells of the body, which produce free radicals. These radicals can initiate chain reactions that can damage cells or cause them to die. Antioxidant substances eliminate free radicals and inhibit other oxidation reactions, thus protecting and prolonging cellular functions and protectiong them against tumors.

  • Overall Well-Being

    Well-being is related to one's ability to achieve needs and be satisfied with life. It is considered that, for an individual to be healthy, must live the most complete state of physical, mental and social well-being.

Table of negative interactions


Related videos about Blueberry


  1. a b Carmen Ramirez-Tortosa M, et al. Oxidative stress status in an institutionalised elderly group after the intake of a phenolic-rich dessertBr J Nutr. (2004)
  2. ^ Antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, and phenolics of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) fluid products as affected by fermentation.
  3. ^ Deng J, et al. Effects of cold storage and 1-methylcyclopropene treatments on ripening and cell wall degrading in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) fruitFood Sci Technol Int. (2013)
  4. ^ Takami Y, et al. Proanthocyanidin derived from the leaves of Vaccinium virgatum suppresses platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation of the human hepatic stellate cell line LI90Hepatol Res. (2010)
  5. ^ Bobiwash K, Schultz ST, Schoen DJ. Somatic deleterious mutation rate in a woody plant: estimation from phenotypic dataHeredity (Edinb). (2013)
  6. ^ Hidalgo C, et al. Acetobacter strains isolated during the acetification of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) wineLett Appl Microbiol. (2013)
  7. a b c d Gustafson SJ, et al. A nonpolar blueberry fraction blunts NADPH oxidase activation in neuronal cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-αOxid Med Cell Longev. (2012)
  8. ^ Ortiz J, et al. Color, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Activity of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.), Blueberry (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.), and Apple Wines from EcuadorJ Food Sci. (2013)
  9. a b c Lopera YE, et al. Antioxidant Activity and Cardioprotective Effect of a Nonalcoholic Extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz during Ischemia-Reperfusion in RatsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2013)
  10. ^ Elisabetta B, et al. Nutritional profile and productivity of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) in different habitats of a protected area of the eastern Italian AlpsJ Food Sci. (2013)
  11. a b Sekizawa H, et al. Relationship between polyphenol content and anti-influenza viral effects of berriesJ Sci Food Agric. (2013)
  12. ^ Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars.
  13. ^ Kondo M, et al. Ursolic acid and its esters: occurrence in cranberries and other Vaccinium fruit and effects on matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 prostate tumor cellsJ Sci Food Agric. (2011)
  14. ^ Flores G, et al. Antioxidants of therapeutic relevance in COPD from the neotropical blueberry Anthopterus wardiiFood Chem. (2012)
  15. ^ Chen L, et al. Phytochemical properties and antioxidant capacities of various colored berriesJ Sci Food Agric. (2013)
  16. a b c d Borges G, et al. Identification of flavonoid and phenolic antioxidants in black currants, blueberries, raspberries, red currants, and cranberriesJ Agric Food Chem. (2010)
  17. ^ Gavrilova V, et al. Separation, characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in blueberries and red and black currants by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSnJ Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  18. a b Prior RL, et al. Identification of procyanidins and anthocyanins in blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp.) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometryJ Agric Food Chem. (2001)
  19. ^ Taruscio TG, Barney DL, Exon J. Content and profile of flavanoid and phenolic acid compounds in conjunction with the antioxidant capacity for a variety of northwest Vaccinium berriesJ Agric Food Chem. (2004)
  20. a b Rodriguez-Mateos A, et al. Procyanidin, Anthocyanin, and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Highbush and Lowbush BlueberriesJ Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  21. ^ Changes in Anthocyanins and Polyphenolics During Juice Processing of Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).
  22. ^ Quantitation and Distribution of Simple and Acylated Anthocyanins and Other Phenolics in Blueberries.
  23. ^ Flavonoid glycosides and antioxidant capacity of various blackberry, blueberry and red grape genotypes determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
  24. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Yousef GG, et al. Efficient Quantification of the Health-Relevant Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acid Profiles in Commercial Cultivars and Breeding Selections of Blueberries ( Vaccinium spp.)J Agric Food Chem. (2013)
  25. ^ Anthocyanin composition and content of blueberries from around the world.
  26. a b Antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in peel and flesh of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) cultivars.
  27. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Carey AN, et al. Stilbenes and Anthocyanins Reduce Stress Signaling in BV-2 Mouse MicrogliaJ Agric Food Chem. (2013)
  28. a b c d e f g h i Rendeiro C, et al. Dietary levels of pure flavonoids improve spatial memory performance and increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factorPLoS One. (2013)
  29. ^ Lashmanova KA, Kuzivanova OA, Dymova OV. Northern berries as a source of carotenoidsActa Biochim Pol. (2012)
  30. ^ Paul S, et al. Dietary intake of pterostilbene, a constituent of blueberries, inhibits the beta-catenin/p65 downstream signaling pathway and colon carcinogenesis in ratsCarcinogenesis. (2010)
  31. a b Gu L, et al. Fractionation of polymeric procyanidins from lowbush blueberry and quantification of procyanidins in selected foods with an optimized normal-phase HPLC-MS fluorescent detection methodJ Agric Food Chem. (2002)
  32. ^ Chemical Composition of Lowbush Blueberry Cultivars.
  33. a b Hicks JM, et al. Quantification of chlorogenic acid and hyperoside directly from crude blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) leaf extract by NMR spectroscopy analysis: single-laboratory validationJ AOAC Int. (2012)
  34. a b Nagao K, et al. Effect of Vaccinium ashei reade leaves on lipid metabolism in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty ratsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2008)
  35. a b c Chemical constituents of the leaves of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and characterisation of polymeric proanthocyanidins containing phenylpropanoid units and A-type linkages.
  36. a b c d e Yuji K, et al. Effect of dietary blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) leaves on serum and hepatic lipid levels in ratsJ Oleo Sci. (2013)
  37. ^ Inoue N, et al. Effect of Vaccinium ashei reade leaf extracts on lipid metabolism in obese OLETF ratsBiosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2011)
  38. ^ Sakaida H, et al. Effect of Vaccinium ashei reade leaves on angiotensin converting enzyme activity in vitro and on systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats in vivoBiosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2007)
  39. a b Del Bo’ C, et al. Blanching improves anthocyanin absorption from highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) purée in healthy human volunteers: a pilot studyJ Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  40. ^ Sablani SS, et al. Effect of thermal treatments on phytochemicals in conventionally and organically grown berriesJ Sci Food Agric. (2010)
  41. ^ Brambilla A, et al. Steam-blanched highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) juice: phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar selectionJ Agric Food Chem. (2008)
  42. ^ Impact of high pressure processing on total antioxidant activity, phenolic, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin content and colour of strawberry and blackberry purées.
  43. a b Fracassetti D, et al. Effect of Time and storage temperature on anthocyanin decay and antioxidant activity in wild blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium ) powderJ Agric Food Chem. (2013)
  44. ^ Buckow R, et al. Pressure and temperature effects on degradation kinetics and storage stability of total anthocyanins in blueberry juiceJ Agric Food Chem. (2010)
  45. ^ Srivastava A, et al. Effect of storage conditions on the biological activity of phenolic compounds of blueberry extract packed in glass bottlesJ Agric Food Chem. (2007)
  46. ^ Connor AM, et al. Changes in fruit antioxidant activity among blueberry cultivars during cold-temperature storageJ Agric Food Chem. (2002)
  47. ^ Kalt W, et al. Antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, phenolics, and anthocyanins after fresh storage of small fruitsJ Agric Food Chem. (1999)
  48. ^ Zheng Y, et al. Effect of high-oxygen atmospheres on blueberry phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacityJ Agric Food Chem. (2003)
  49. ^ Effect of heating on the stability of grape and blueberry pomace procyanidins and total anthocyanins.
  50. ^ Bener M, et al. Release and Degradation of Anthocyanins and Phenolics from Blueberry Pomace during Thermal Acid Hydrolysis and Dry HeatingJ Agric Food Chem. (2013)
  51. ^ Blueberry and Grape Anthocyanins as Breakfast Cereal Colorants.
  52. ^ Yue X, Xu Z. Changes of anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, and antioxidant activity in bilberry extract during dry heatingJ Food Sci. (2008)
  53. a b c d e Goyarzu P, et al. Blueberry supplemented diet: effects on object recognition memory and nuclear factor-kappa B levels in aged ratsNutr Neurosci. (2004)
  54. a b Aires DJ, et al. Potentiation of dietary restriction-induced lifespan extension by polyphenolsBiochim Biophys Acta. (2012)
  55. ^ Kamonpatana K, et al. Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human salivaFood Chem. (2012)
  56. ^ Marczylo TH, et al. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the putative cancer chemopreventive agent cyanidin-3-glucoside in miceCancer Chemother Pharmacol. (2009)
  57. ^ Cao G, Prior RL. Anthocyanins are detected in human plasma after oral administration of an elderberry extractClin Chem. (1999)
  58. ^ Anthocyanins are absorbed in glycated forms in elderly women: a pharmacokinetic study.
  59. a b c d Del Bo C, et al. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteersNutr Res. (2013)
  60. a b Wilms LC, et al. Impact of multiple genetic polymorphisms on effects of a 4-week blueberry juice intervention on ex vivo induced lymphocytic DNA damage in human volunteersCarcinogenesis. (2007)
  61. a b Xu J, et al. Intake of Blueberry Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Affects the Gut Microbiota of L-NAME Treated RatsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2013)
  62. a b Martin SJ, Clark RE. The rodent hippocampus and spatial memory: from synapses to systemsCell Mol Life Sci. (2007)
  63. ^ Shankar S, Teyler TJ, Robbins N. Aging differentially alters forms of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal area CA1J Neurophysiol. (1998)
  64. ^ Rosenzweig ES, Barnes CA. Impact of aging on hippocampal function: plasticity, network dynamics, and cognitionProg Neurobiol. (2003)
  65. ^ Eckles-Smith K, et al. Caloric restriction prevents age-related deficits in LTP and in NMDA receptor expressionBrain Res Mol Brain Res. (2000)
  66. ^ Clayton DA, Browning MD. Deficits in the expression of the NR2B subunit in the hippocampus of aged Fisher 344 ratsNeurobiol Aging. (2001)
  67. ^ Barnes CA, Rao G, Shen J. Age-related decrease in the N-methyl-D-aspartateR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential in hippocampal region CA1Neurobiol Aging. (1997)
  68. a b Coultrap SJ, Bickford PC, Browning MD. Blueberry-enriched diet ameliorates age-related declines in NMDA receptor-dependent LTPAge (Dordr). (2008)
  69. ^ Joseph JA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementationJ Neurosci. (1999)
  70. a b c d Vuong T, et al. Antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of biotransformed blueberry juice in KKA(y) miceInt J Obes (Lond). (2009)
  71. a b Clegg ME, et al. The addition of raspberries and blueberries to a starch-based food does not alter the glycaemic responseBr J Nutr. (2011)
  72. a b Lau FC, Bielinski DF, Joseph JA. Inhibitory effects of blueberry extract on the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microgliaJ Neurosci Res. (2007)
  73. ^ Kong Y, Le Y. Toll-like receptors in inflammation of the central nervous systemInt Immunopharmacol. (2011)
  74. a b Chakraborty S, et al. Inflammasome signaling at the heart of central nervous system pathologyJ Neurosci Res. (2010)
  75. a b Tammariello SP, Quinn MT, Estus S. NADPH oxidase contributes directly to oxidative stress and apoptosis in nerve growth factor-deprived sympathetic neuronsJ Neurosci. (2000)
  76. ^ Barth BM, Gustafson SJ, Kuhn TB. Neutral sphingomyelinase activation precedes NADPH oxidase-dependent damage in neurons exposed to the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-αJ Neurosci Res. (2012)
  77. a b Bedard K, Krause KH. The NOX family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases: physiology and pathophysiologyPhysiol Rev. (2007)
  78. a b c d Shukitt-Hale B, et al. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampusNutr Neurosci. (2008)
  79. ^ Salminen A, et al. Activation of innate immunity system during aging: NF-kB signaling is the molecular culprit of inflamm-agingAgeing Res Rev. (2008)
  80. a b Rendeiro C, et al. Blueberry supplementation induces spatial memory improvements and region-specific regulation of hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression in young ratsPsychopharmacology (Berl). (2012)
  81. ^ Joseph JA, et al. Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of agingJ Agric Food Chem. (2008)
  82. ^ Andres-Lacueva C, et al. Anthocyanins in aged blueberry-fed rats are found centrally and may enhance memoryNutr Neurosci. (2005)
  83. ^ Blueberry-induced changes in spatial working memory correlate with changes in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels.
  84. ^ Krikorian R, et al. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairmentBr J Nutr. (2010)
  85. ^ Krikorian R, et al. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adultsJ Agric Food Chem. (2010)
  86. ^ Cassidy A, et al. High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged womenCirculation. (2013)
  87. a b c Ahmet I, et al. Blueberry-enriched diet protects rat heart from ischemic damagePLoS One. (2009)
  88. ^ Survival and Cardioprotective Benefits of Long-Term Blueberry Enriched Diet in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Following Myocardial Infarction in Rats.
  89. ^ Zorov DB, et al. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ROS release: a new phenomenon accompanying induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition in cardiac myocytesJ Exp Med. (2000)
  90. ^ Gunter TE, Pfeiffer DR. Mechanisms by which mitochondria transport calciumAm J Physiol. (1990)
  91. ^ Crompton M. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore and its role in cell deathBiochem J. (1999)
  92. a b Elks CM, et al. A blueberry-enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stressPLoS One. (2011)
  93. ^ Shaughnessy KS, et al. Diets containing blueberry extract lower blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone ratsNutr Res. (2009)
  94. ^ Horrigan LA, et al. Blueberry juice causes potent relaxation of rat aortic rings via the activation of potassium channels and the H₂S pathwayFood Funct. (2013)
  95. a b c d e f g Basu A, et al. Blueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr. (2010)
  96. ^ Johnson SA, et al. Daily blueberry consumption improves blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialJ Acad Nutr Diet. (2015)
  97. a b Anthocyanins as Antioxidants on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein and Lecithin−Liposome Systems.
  98. a b Antioxidant Activity of Berry Phenolics on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein and Liposome Oxidation.
  99. a b Blacker BC, et al. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidationBr J Nutr. (2013)
  100. a b c d Stull AJ, et al. Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and womenJ Nutr. (2010)
  101. a b Çoban J, et al. Effect of blueberry feeding on lipids and oxidative stress in the serum, liver and aorta of Guinea pigs fed on a high-cholesterol dietBiosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2013)
  102. ^ Wu X, et al. Dietary blueberries attenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzyme expressionJ Nutr. (2010)
  103. ^ Matsui T, et al. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory action of natural acylated anthocyanins. 2. alpha-Glucosidase inhibition by isolated acylated anthocyaninsJ Agric Food Chem. (2001)
  104. ^ Schäfer A, Högger P. Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) effectively inhibit alpha-glucosidaseDiabetes Res Clin Pract. (2007)
  105. ^ Flores FP, et al. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of blueberry anthocyanins prepared using different solventsJ Agric Food Chem. (2013)
  106. ^ Johnson MH, et al. Cultivar evaluation and effect of fermentation on antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corombosum)J Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  107. ^ McDougall GJ, et al. Different polyphenolic components of soft fruits inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidaseJ Agric Food Chem. (2005)
  108. ^ Kay CD, Holub BJ. The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption on postprandial serum antioxidant status in human subjectsBr J Nutr. (2002)
  109. ^ Abidov M, et al. Effect of Blueberin on fasting glucose, C-reactive protein and plasma aminotransferases, in female volunteers with diabetes type 2: double-blind, placebo controlled clinical studyGeorgian Med News. (2006)
  110. a b Moghe SS, et al. Effect of blueberry polyphenols on 3T3-F442A preadipocyte differentiationJ Med Food. (2012)
  111. a b Seymour EM, et al. Blueberry intake alters skeletal muscle and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity and reduces insulin resistance in obese ratsJ Med Food. (2011)
  112. ^ Surmi BK, Hasty AH. Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue: initiation, propagation and remodelingFuture Lipidol. (2008)
  113. ^ Shoelson SE, Herrero L, Naaz A. Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistanceGastroenterology. (2007)
  114. ^ Cinti S, et al. Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humansJ Lipid Res. (2005)
  115. ^ Murano I, et al. Dead adipocytes, detected as crown-like structures, are prevalent in visceral fat depots of genetically obese miceJ Lipid Res. (2008)
  116. ^ Atalay M, et al. Anti-angiogenic property of edible berry in a model of hemangiomaFEBS Lett. (2003)
  117. a b c DeFuria J, et al. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelaeJ Nutr. (2009)
  118. a b Vendrame S, et al. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption improves inflammatory status in the obese Zucker rat model of the metabolic syndromeJ Nutr Biochem. (2013)
  119. a b Prior RL, et al. Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat dietJ Agric Food Chem. (2010)
  120. a b c Prior RL, et al. Purified berry anthocyanins but not whole berries normalize lipid parameters in mice fed an obesogenic high fat dietMol Nutr Food Res. (2009)
  121. a b McLeay Y, et al. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damageJ Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2012)
  122. a b Zhang J, et al. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female ratsPLoS One. (2011)
  123. ^ Kulak CA, Bilezikian JP. Osteoporosis: preventive strategiesInt J Fertil Womens Med. (1998)
  124. ^ Chen JR, et al. Dietary-induced serum phenolic acids promote bone growth via p38 MAPK/β-catenin canonical Wnt signalingJ Bone Miner Res. (2010)
  125. a b c Ravoori S, et al. Inhibition of estrogen-mediated mammary tumorigenesis by blueberry and black raspberryJ Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  126. a b c Aiyer HS, Gupta RC. Berries and ellagic acid prevent estrogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis by modulating enzymes of estrogen metabolismCancer Prev Res (Phila). (2010)
  127. ^ Extraction, stability, and quantitation of ellagic acid in various fruits and nuts.
  128. ^ Larrosa M, et al. Urolithins, ellagic acid-derived metabolites produced by human colonic microflora, exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activitiesJ Agric Food Chem. (2006)
  129. ^ Schmitt E, Stopper H. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidinsNutr Cancer. (2001)
  130. ^ Sichel G, et al. In vitro scavenger activity of some flavonoids and melanins against O2-(.)Free Radic Biol Med. (1991)
  131. a b c Tsuda T, et al. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the active oxygen radical scavenging effect of anthocyanin pigments isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris LBiochem Pharmacol. (1996)
  132. ^ Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacity of Anthocyanins.
  133. ^ Plant Flavonoids, Especially Tea Flavonols, Are Powerful Antioxidants Using an in Vitro Oxidation Model for Heart Disease.
  134. ^ van Acker SA, et al. Flavonoids as scavengers of nitric oxide radicalBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (1995)
  135. ^ Bornsek SM, et al. Bilberry and blueberry anthocyanins act as powerful intracellular antioxidants in mammalian cellsFood Chem. (2012)
  136. a b c Kavitha K, et al. Chemopreventive effects of diverse dietary phytochemicals against DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis via the induction of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective antioxidant, detoxification, and DNA repair enzymesBiochimie. (2013)
  137. a b Wang YP, et al. Effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and transcription factor Nrf2 in ratsWorld J Gastroenterol. (2010)
  138. ^ Wang YP, et al. Effect of blueberry on hepatic and immunological functions in miceHepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. (2010)
  139. ^ Kaspar JW, Niture SK, Jaiswal AK. Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) signaling in oxidative stressFree Radic Biol Med. (2009)
  140. ^ Ma Q, He X. Molecular basis of electrophilic and oxidative defense: promises and perils of Nrf2Pharmacol Rev. (2012)
  141. ^ Ade N, et al. HMOX1 and NQO1 genes are upregulated in response to contact sensitizers in dendritic cells and THP-1 cell line: role of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathwayToxicol Sci. (2009)
  142. ^ Liu W, et al. Cytosolic protection against ultraviolet induced DNA damage by blueberry anthocyanins and anthocyanidins in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cellsBiotechnol Lett. (2013)
  143. ^ Hu R, et al. Gene expression profiles induced by cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanate sulforaphane in the liver of C57BL/6J mice and C57BL/6J/Nrf2 (-/-) miceCancer Lett. (2006)
  144. ^ Riso P, et al. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factorsEur J Nutr. (2013)
  145. ^ McAnulty LS, et al. Effect of blueberry ingestion on natural killer cell counts, oxidative stress, and inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of runningAppl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2011)
  146. ^ Bingül I, et al. Effect of blueberry pretreatment on diethylnitrosamine-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in ratsEnviron Toxicol Pharmacol. (2013)
  147. ^ Wang Y, et al. Dietary supplementation of blueberry juice enhances hepatic expression of metallothionein and attenuates liver fibrosis in ratsPLoS One. (2013)
  148. ^ Strömberg I, et al. Blueberry- and spirulina-enriched diets enhance striatal dopamine recovery and induce a rapid, transient microglia activation after injury of the rat nigrostriatal dopamine systemExp Neurol. (2005)
  149. ^ Wang Y, et al. Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damageExp Neurol. (2005)
  150. a b c Bickford PC, et al. Nutraceuticals synergistically promote proliferation of human stem cellsStem Cells Dev. (2006)
  151. ^ Acosta S, et al. NT-020, a natural therapeutic approach to optimize spatial memory performance and increase neural progenitor cell proliferation and decrease inflammation in the aged ratRejuvenation Res. (2010)
  152. a b Spirulina Promotes Stem Cell Genesis and Protects against LPS Induced Declines in Neural Stem Cell Proliferation.
  153. ^ Yasuhara T, et al. Dietary supplementation exerts neuroprotective effects in ischemic stroke modelRejuvenation Res. (2008)
  154. ^ Shytle RD, et al. Oxidative stress of neural, hematopoietic, and stem cells: protection by natural compoundsRejuvenation Res. (2007)
  155. ^ Sakakibara S, et al. Acetic acid activates hepatic AMPK and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic KK-A(y) miceBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2006)
  156. ^ Kim JY, et al. Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cellsNutr Res Pract. (2013)
  157. Ashraf R, et al. Effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with essential hypertensionPak J Pharm Sci. (2013)
  158. Ried K, Toben C, Fakler P. Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysisNutr Rev. (2013)
  159. Hou LQ, Liu YH, Zhang YY. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2015)
  160. Bowtell JL, et al. Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementationAppl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2017)
  161. Whyte AR, Schafer G, Williams CM. Cognitive effects following acute wild blueberry supplementation in 7- to 10-year-old childrenEur J Nutr. (2016)
  162. Potential health benefits of spirulina microalgae.
  163. Characterization of Spirulina Biomass for CELSS Diet Potential.
  164. Vitamin A.
  165. Marles RJ, et al. United States pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulinaCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2011)
  166. Wu Q, et al. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overviewArch Toxicol. (2016)
  167. Serban MC, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrationsClin Nutr. (2016)
  168. Kerley CP. Dietary nitrate as modulator of physical performance and cardiovascular healthCurr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2017)
  169. Siervo M, et al. Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysisJ Nutr. (2013)