Astragalus membranaceus, bei qi, huang qi, ogi, hwanggi, milk vetch, Astragalus Root

Astragalus has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine in combination with other herbs, such as ginseng, dong quai, and licorice. There are more than 2,000 species of astragalus. It has many health benefits, such as immune-boosting, antiaging and anti-inflammatory effects. It has been used to treat many conditions, including diarrhea, fatigue, anorexia, upper respiratory infections, heart disease, hepatitis, fibromyalgia, and as an adjunctive therapy for cancer.

  • Origin: Plant Based
  • Source: Itself
  • Type: Phytochemicals, Flavonoids
  • Age Range: Adults (18-60), Seniors (>60)
  • Toxicity: May be toxic in high doses
  • Outcomes: Immunity, Preventive Immunity, Respiratory Health, Nasal Congestion

What are Astragalus Root benefits?

Astragalus membranaceus is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been used in a wide variety of herbal blends and ‘natural’ remedies, including Dang-gui buxue tang , which is Astragalus membranaceus combined with Angelicae Sinensis. Through research, its cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and longevity effects have been discovered. It has studies that prove its effectiveness in immunity and renal function, besides increasing the recovery rate in people who have suffered a stroke. It also fights cardiovascular diseases and reduces the risk of cancer, controls blood sugar levels, and treats colds and flu. With a complete combo, you can check in which of these functions this nutraceutical can help you, check out our test.

Table of relations

Consistent effects
Strength of effects
Scientific articles
Respiratory Health Respiratory Health
Not an excessively potent reduction of nasal congestion and other rhinitus symptoms, but quite placebo.

Immunity Astragalus Root and Immunity

The immune system is made up of cells, tissues and organs that act in the organism's defense against the harmful effects of external microorganisms. The supplements indicated for immunity act as strengthening agents of this system, increasing the antibodies production and, consequently, its defense activity.
  • Preventive Immunity

    White blood cells - or leukocytes - are the body's defense cells that destroy foreign agents, for example, bacteria, viruses and toxic substances that attack our body and cause infections or other diseases. There are also enzymes that refer to the antioxidant defense system that plays the role of inhibiting and/or reducing the damage caused by the harmful action of free radicals or non-radical reactive species.

Respiratory Health Astragalus Root and Respiratory Health

The respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, windpipe and lungs, brings air into the body when you breathe. In the lungs, the oxygen from each breath is transferred to the bloodstream and sent to all of the body’s cells in order for them to function (otherwise they would just stop working and die). This is one of the most important systems in the body, not just in a physiological way, but it is also directly connected to the mind and is able to promote relaxation and focus.
  • Nasal Congestion

    Nasal congestion is another term for ''stuffy nose''. It is often a symptom of another health problem, such as sinusitis, allergic rhinitis or a common cold, other times it can be caused by changes in the structure of the nose, such as deviated septum. Nasal congestion is marked by clogged nose or runny nose, sinus pain, mucus accumulation and swollen nasal tissues. There are a lot of different treatments for nasal congestion, depending of the cause of it. There are some natural products that can alliviate and help treat this condition.

Related videos about Astragalus Root


  1. a b c Zhang J, et al. Systematic review of the renal protective effect of Astragalus membranaceus (root) on diabetic nephropathy in animal modelsJ Ethnopharmacol. (2009)
  2. a b c d e f g [No authors listed. Astragalus membranaceus. MonographAltern Med Rev. (2003)
  3. ^ Wu F, Chen X. {A review of pharmacological study on Astragalus membranaceus {Fisch.} Bge}Zhong Yao Cai. (2004)
  4. a b c d e f g Kuo YH, et al. Astragalus membranaceus flavonoids {AMF} ameliorate chronic fatigue syndrome induced by food intake restriction plus forced swimmingJ Ethnopharmacol. (2009)
  5. ^ Zhu J, et al. In vitro intestinal absorption and first-pass intestinal and hepatic metabolism of cycloastragenol, a potent small molecule telomerase activatorDrug Metab Pharmacokinet. (2010)
  7. a b c d Kwon HJ, Park YD. Determination of astragalin and astragaloside content in Radix Astragali using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detectionJ Chromatogr A. (2012)
  8. ^ Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview.
  9. ^ Chemical and Genetic Assessment of Variability in Commercial Radix Astragali (Astragalus spp.) by Ion Trap LC-MS and Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Barcoding Sequence Analyses.
  10. a b c d e f g h i Zhang LJ, et al. New isoflavonoid glycosides and related constituents from astragali radix ( Astragalus membranaceus ) and their inhibitory activity on nitric oxide productionJ Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  11. ^ Hirotani M, et al. Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from the hairy root cultures of Astragalus membranaceusPhytochemistry. (1994)
  12. ^ Chemical Constituents of Astragali Radix, the Root of Astragalus membranaceus.
  13. ^ Xu DJ, et al. Molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of Astragalus polysaccharidesMolecules. (2008)
  14. a b Saito S, et al. Astragalin from Cassia alata Induces DNA Adducts in Vitro and Repairable DNA Damage in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaeInt J Mol Sci. (2012)
  15. a b Structural analysis and bioactivity of a polysaccharide from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao.
  16. a b c d Wang P, et al. HDTIC-1 and HDTIC-2, two compounds extracted from Astragali Radix, delay replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblastsMech Ageing Dev. (2003)
  17. a b c d e Lin LZ, et al. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry study of the flavonoids of the roots of Astragalus mongholicus and A. membranaceusJ Chromatogr A. (2000)
  18. ^ Zhang X, et al. Simultaneous quantification of three isoflavonoid glycosides in rabbit plasma after oral administration of Astragalus mongholicus extract by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometryAnal Chim Acta. (2007)
  19. ^ Isoflavans and a pterocarpan from Astragalus mongholicus.
  20. a b c d e f g h i j Xu F, et al. Absorption and metabolism of Astragali radix decoction: in silico, in vitro, and a case study in vivoDrug Metab Dispos. (2006)
  21. ^ Bedir E, et al. Cycloartane triterpene glycosides from the roots of Astragalus brachypterus and Astragalus microcephalusJ Nat Prod. (1998)
  22. a b Zhang BQ, et al. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and its main components on the acute phase endothelial dysfunction induced by homocysteineVascul Pharmacol. (2007)
  23. ^ Nagasawa H, et al. Effects of gold banded lily (Lilium auratum Lindl) or Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L) on spontaneous mammary tumourigenesis in SHN miceAnticancer Res. (2001)
  24. ^ Ohkawara S, et al. Astrapterocarpan isolated from Astragalus membranaceus inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cellsEur J Pharmacol. (2005)
  25. ^ Characterisation of a novel monomeric lectin (AML) from Astragalus membranaceus with anti-proliferative activity.
  26. a b c d e f g h Gu Y, et al. Transport and bioavailability studies of astragaloside IV, an active ingredient in Radix AstragaliBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. (2004)
  27. a b c d e f g Yang WJ, et al. Synergistic antioxidant activities of eight traditional Chinese herb pairsBiol Pharm Bull. (2009)
  28. a b c d e f g Harley CB, et al. A natural product telomerase activator as part of a health maintenance programRejuvenation Res. (2011)
  29. ^ Patent: Compositions and methods for increasing telomerase activity.
  30. a b c d e de Jesus BB, et al. The telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases health span of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidenceAging Cell. (2011)
  31. a b Fauce SR, et al. Telomerase-based pharmacologic enhancement of antiviral function of human CD8+ T lymphocytesJ Immunol. (2008)
  32. ^ Telomerase-Based Pharmacologic Enhancement of Antiviral Function of Human CD8+ T Lymphocytes.
  33. ^ Direct activation of telomerase by GH via phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase.
  34. ^ Kang SS, et al. Akt protein kinase enhances human telomerase activity through phosphorylation of telomerase reverse transcriptase subunitJ Biol Chem. (1999)
  35. ^ Astragaloside IV Structure: Molecular Formula.
  36. a b Huang CR, et al. Absorption enhancement study of astragaloside IV based on its transport mechanism in caco-2 cellsEur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. (2006)
  37. a b Zheng KY, et al. The membrane permeability of Astragali Radix-derived formononetin and calycosin is increased by Angelicae Sinensis Radix in Caco-2 cells: A synergistic action of an ancient herbal decoction Danggui Buxue TangJ Pharm Biomed Anal. (2012)
  38. ^ Zhang W, et al. Quantitative determination of Astragaloside IV, a natural product with cardioprotective activity, in plasma, urine and other biological samples by HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometryJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. (2005)
  39. a b c d e f g h i Zhang WD, et al. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of a natural cardioprotective agent astragaloside IV in rats and dogsLife Sci. (2006)
  40. a b Pao LH, et al. Herb-drug interaction of 50 Chinese herbal medicines on CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivoAm J Chin Med. (2012)
  41. ^ Davies B, Morris T. Physiological parameters in laboratory animals and humansPharm Res. (1993)
  42. a b c Mao XQ, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Astragalus membranaceus in diet induced insulin resistant C57BL/6J mice and its potential mechanismPhytomedicine. (2009)
  43. ^ Paradies G, et al. Age-dependent decline in the cytochrome c oxidase activity in rat heart mitochondria: role of cardiolipinFEBS Lett. (1997)
  44. ^ Spiteller G. Lipid peroxidation in aging and age-dependent diseasesExp Gerontol. (2001)
  45. a b Li XT, et al. Mitochondrial Protection and Anti-aging Activity of Astragalus Polysaccharides and Their Potential MechanismInt J Mol Sci. (2012)
  46. a b c Luo Z, et al. Astragalus membranaceus prevents daunorubicin-induced apoptosis of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes: role of free radical effect of Astragalus membranaceus on daunorubicin cardiotoxicityPhytother Res. (2009)
  47. a b Mak DH, et al. Dang-Gui Buxue Tang produces a more potent cardioprotective effect than its component herb extracts and enhances glutathione status in rat heart mitochondria and erythrocytesPhytother Res. (2006)
  48. a b c d Wang P, et al. The two isomers of HDTIC compounds from Astragali Radix slow down telomere shortening rate via attenuating oxidative stress and increasing DNA repair ability in human fetal lung diploid fibroblast cellsDNA Cell Biol. (2010)
  49. a b Wang PC, et al. Two isomers of HDTIC isolated from Astragali Radix decrease the expression of p16 in 2BS cellsChin Med J (Engl). (2008)
  50. ^ Haferkamp S, et al. p16INK4a-induced senescence is disabled by melanoma-associated mutationsAging Cell. (2008)
  51. ^ Beauséjour CM, et al. Reversal of human cellular senescence: roles of the p53 and p16 pathwaysEMBO J. (2003)
  52. a b c Li WZ, et al. Protective effect of extract of Astragalus on learning and memory impairments and neurons’ apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids in 12-month-old male miceAnat Rec (Hoboken). (2011)
  53. a b Park HJ, et al. The Effects of Astragalus Membranaceus on Repeated Restraint Stress-induced Biochemical and Behavioral ResponsesKorean J Physiol Pharmacol. (2009)
  54. ^ Effect of extract of astragalus on inflammatory factor and apoptosis after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
  55. ^ Huang XP, et al. Astragalus extract alleviates nerve injury after cerebral ischemia by improving energy metabolism and inhibiting apoptosisBiol Pharm Bull. (2012)
  56. ^ Qu YZ, et al. Astragaloside IV attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier in ratsEur J Pharmacol. (2009)
  57. ^ Luo Y, et al. Astragaloside IV protects against ischemic brain injury in a murine model of transient focal ischemiaNeurosci Lett. (2004)
  58. ^ Chan WS, et al. Neuroprotective effects of Astragaloside IV in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated primary nigral cell cultureNeurochem Int. (2009)
  59. ^ Zhang WD, et al. Astragaloside IV from Astragalus membranaceus shows cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia in vivo and in vitroPlanta Med. (2006)
  60. ^ Han XH, et al. Astragaloside IV regulates expression of ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunits after ischemia-reperfusion in rat ventricular cardiomyocytesJ Tradit Chin Med. (2011)
  61. a b Zhang WD, et al. Astragaloside IV dilates aortic vessels from normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats through endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent waysPlanta Med. (2006)
  62. ^ Zhang C, et al. Mechanisms underlying vasorelaxant action of astragaloside IV in isolated rat aortic ringsClin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. (2007)
  63. ^ Qiu LH, Xie XJ, Zhang BQ. Astragaloside IV improves homocysteine-induced acute phase endothelial dysfunction via antioxidationBiol Pharm Bull. (2010)
  64. a b Zhang N, et al. Astragaloside IV improves metabolic syndrome and endothelium dysfunction in fructose-fed ratsMolecules. (2011)
  65. ^ Chao M, et al. Improving insulin resistance with traditional Chinese medicine in type 2 diabetic patientsEndocrine. (2009)
  66. ^ Bai F, et al. Anti-hypertensive effects of shichimotsukokato in 5/6 nephrectomized Wistar rats mediated by the DDAH-ADMA-NO pathwayJ Nat Med. (2012)
  67. a b Li JX, et al. Antihypertensive effect of total flavonoid fraction of Astragalus complanatus in hypertensive ratsChin J Physiol. (2005)
  68. a b Zheng KY, et al. Flavonoids from Radix Astragali induce the expression of erythropoietin in cultured cells: a signaling mediated via the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1αJ Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  69. ^ Wang YF, et al. Protective effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on ATP binding cassette transporter A1 in THP-1 derived foam cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alphaPhytother Res. (2010)
  70. ^ Oram JF. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and cholesterol traffickingCurr Opin Lipidol. (2002)
  71. ^ Fujiwara Y, et al. Triterpenoids isolated from Zizyphus jujuba inhibit foam cell formation in macrophagesJ Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  72. ^ Yang QY, Lu S, Sun HR. Clinical effect of Astragalus granule of different dosages on quality of life in patients with chronic heart failureChin J Integr Med. (2011)
  73. ^ Zhou ZL, Yu P, Lin D. {Study on effect of Astragalus injection in treating congestive heart failure}Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (2001)
  74. ^ Liu H, et al. {Effect of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (SFI) on immune function in patients with congestive heart failure}Zhong Yao Cai. (2005)
  75. ^ Zhang JG, et al. {Effect of Astragalus injection on plasma levels of apoptosis-related factors in aged patients with chronic heart failure}Chin J Integr Med. (2005)
  76. ^ Liu ZG, Xiong ZM, Yu XY. {Effect of astragalus injection on immune function in patients with congestive heart failure}Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (2003)
  77. ^ Lu S, et al. Progress in the research of Radix Astragali in treating chronic heart failure: effective ingredients, dose-effect relationship and adverse reactionChin J Integr Med. (2011)
  78. ^ Fu S, et al. Huangqi injection {a traditional Chinese patent medicine} for chronic heart failure: a systematic reviewPLoS One. (2011)
  79. a b c d Cheng Y, et al. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statinsPLoS One. (2011)
  80. ^ Ntanios FY, Jones PJ. Effects of variable dietary sitostanol concentrations on plasma lipid profile and phytosterol metabolism in hamstersBiochim Biophys Acta. (1998)
  81. ^ Wang YW, et al. Effects of policosanols and phytosterols on lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamstersLipids. (2003)
  82. ^ Vanstone CA, et al. Unesterified plant sterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations equivalently in hypercholesterolemic personsAm J Clin Nutr. (2002)
  83. ^ Acid treatment to improve psyllium functionality.
  84. ^ Trautwein EA, Kunath-Rau A, Erbersdobler HF. Increased fecal bile acid excretion and changes in the circulating bile acid pool are involved in the hypocholesterolemic and gallstone-preventive actions of psyllium in hamstersJ Nutr. (1999)
  85. a b c d e f Astragalus Polysaccharide Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting PTP1B and NF-κB in C2C12 Myotubes.
  86. a b Wu Y, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of Astragalus polysaccharide and its effect on PTP1BActa Pharmacol Sin. (2005)
  87. a b c d e f Zou F, et al. Astragalus polysaccharides alleviates glucose toxicity and restores glucose homeostasis in diabetic states via activation of AMPKActa Pharmacol Sin. (2009)
  88. a b c d Effects of APS on the Activity of AMPK of STZ-induced T2DM Rats.
  89. a b Liu M, et al. Astragalus polysaccharide improves insulin sensitivity in KKAy mice: regulation of PKB/GLUT4 signaling in skeletal muscleJ Ethnopharmacol. (2010)
  90. a b c d Shen P, et al. Differential effects of isoflavones, from Astragalus membranaceus and Pueraria thomsonii, on the activation of PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and adipocyte differentiation in vitroJ Nutr. (2006)
  91. a b Liu Y, et al. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytesZhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. (2007)
  92. a b Wang SH, et al. Effect of Astragalus polysaccharides and berberine on carbohydrate metabolism and cell differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytesZhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (2004)
  93. a b Xu ME, et al. Effects of astragaloside IV on pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in vitroActa Pharmacol Sin. (2006)
  94. a b c d e f Xu A, et al. Selective elevation of adiponectin production by the natural compounds derived from a medicinal herb alleviates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese miceEndocrinology. (2009)
  95. ^ Yamakawa J, et al. A Kampo Medicine, Boi-ogi-to, Inhibits Obesity in Ovariectomized RatsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2010)
  96. a b c d Cho WC, Leung KN. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceusJ Ethnopharmacol. (2007)
  97. ^ Denzler KL, et al. Regulation of inflammatory gene expression in PBMCs by immunostimulatory botanicalsPLoS One. (2010)
  98. ^ Zhao LH, et al. Characterization of polysaccharide from Astragalus radix as the macrophage stimulatorCell Immunol. (2011)
  99. a b Qin Q, et al. <em>Astragalus </em><em>m</em><em>embranaceus</em> Extract Activates Immune Response in Macrophages via HeparanaseMolecules. (2012)
  100. a b Lee KY, Jeon YJ. Macrophage activation by polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceusInt Immunopharmacol. (2005)
  101. ^ Schepetkin IA, Quinn MT. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potentialInt Immunopharmacol. (2006)
  102. a b Lai PK, et al. Isolation of Anti-inflammatory Fractions and Compounds from the Root of Astragalus membranaceusPhytother Res. (2012)
  103. ^ He X, et al. Inhibitory effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-a and IL-1β production in THP-1 cellsMolecules. (2012)
  104. ^ Yuan Y, Sun M, Li KS. Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8World J Gastroenterol. (2009)
  105. ^ Clement-Kruzel S, et al. Immune modulation of macrophage pro-inflammatory response by goldenseal and Astragalus extractsJ Med Food. (2008)
  106. ^ Mao XF, et al. Effects of beta-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weanling pigsJ Anim Sci. (2005)
  107. ^ Rajput ZI, et al. Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responsesJ Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2007)
  108. ^ Gao XH, et al. Saponin fraction from Astragalus membranaceus roots protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture by inhibiting inflammation and upregulating protein C pathwayJ Nat Med. (2009)
  109. a b You Y, et al. Anti-atherosclerotic function of Astragali Radix extract: downregulation of adhesion molecules in vitro and in vivoBMC Complement Altern Med. (2012)
  110. ^ Zhang WJ, et al. Antiinflammatory activity of astragaloside IV is mediated by inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and adhesion molecule expressionThromb Haemost. (2003)
  111. ^ Li S, Zhang Y, Zhao J. Preparation and suppressive effect of astragalus polysaccharide in glomerulonephritis ratsInt Immunopharmacol. (2007)
  112. ^ Shao BM, et al. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herbBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2004)
  113. a b c d Du X, et al. Astragalus polysaccharides enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses of hepatitis B surface antigen vaccination through inhibiting the expression of transforming growth factor β and the frequency of regulatory T cellsFEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. (2011)
  114. ^ Yin X, et al. Enhancement of the innate immune response of bladder epithelial cells by Astragalus polysaccharides through upregulation of TLR4 expressionBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2010)
  115. a b Liu QY, et al. Astragalus polysaccharides attenuate postburn sepsis via inhibiting negative immunoregulation of CD4+ CD25(high) T cellsPLoS One. (2011)
  116. ^ Qu LL, et al. Astragalus membranaceus injection delayed allograft survival related with CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cellsTransplant Proc. (2010)
  117. ^ Shao P, et al. Regulation on maturation and function of dendritic cells by Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharidesInt Immunopharmacol. (2006)
  118. a b Kim MY, et al. Skeletal Growth and IGF Levels in Rats after HT042 TreatmentPhytother Res. (2012)
  119. ^ The development of functional food with plant extracts for enhancing growth rates.
  120. ^ [Astragalus membranaceus promote expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 in rat model of olivo-cerebellar degeneration.
  121. a b Kim W, et al. Astragalus membranaceus Ameliorates Reproductive Toxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Male MicePhytother Res. (2012)
  122. ^ Krausz C, Sassone-Corsi P. Genetic control of spermiogenesis: insights from the CREM gene and implications for human infertilityReprod Biomed Online. (2005)
  123. ^ Jiang C, et al. Potent antiandrogen and androgen receptor activities of an Angelica gigas-containing herbal formulation: identification of decursin as a novel and active compound with implications for prevention and treatment of prostate cancerCancer Res. (2006)
  124. ^ Kim IG, et al. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plantsEnviron Toxicol Pharmacol. (2008)
  125. ^ Sheng B, et al. The protective effects of the traditional Chinese herbs against renal damage induced by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a clinical studyUrol Res. (2011)
  126. ^ Ti YX, Pan ZX, Wu C. Intervention of astragalus injection on the kidney injury after cardiopulmonary bypass of infants with congenital heart diseaseZhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (2011)
  127. ^ Qu ZL, Dong H, Wang SD. Effects of astragalus injection on renal function in patients after cardiac valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypassZhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (2009)
  128. ^ Su L, Mao JC, Gu JH. Effect of intravenous drip infusion of cyclophosphamide with high-dose Astragalus injection in treating lupus nephritisZhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. (2007)
  129. ^ Zhao L, et al. Integrated treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine for early- and intermediate-stage diabetic nephropathyNan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. (2007)
  130. ^ Li SM, Yan JX, Yang L. Effects of Astragalus injection on renal tubular function in patients with IgA nephropathyZhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (2006)
  131. ^ Chen LP, Zhou QL, Yang JH. Protective effects of astragali injection on tubular in patients with primary nephrotic syndromeZhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. (2004)
  132. ^ Li M, et al. Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus membranaceus in diabetic nephropathyJ Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  133. ^ Wojcikowski K, Johnson DW, Gobe G. Herbs or natural substances as complementary therapies for chronic kidney disease: ideas for future studiesJ Lab Clin Med. (2006)
  134. ^ Ahmed MS, et al. Treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy with the herb Astragalus membranaceusAm J Kidney Dis. (2007)
  135. ^ A novel antioxidant agent, astragalosides, prevents shock wave-induced renal oxidative injury in rabbits.
  136. ^ Zhang YW, Wu CY, Cheng JT. Merit of Astragalus polysaccharide in the improvement of early diabetic nephropathy with an effect on mRNA expressions of NF-kappaB and IkappaB in renal cortex of streptozotoxin-induced diabetic ratsJ Ethnopharmacol. (2007)
  137. ^ Zhang YW, et al. Suppression of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene expression by Danggui buxue tang, a traditional Chinese herbal preparation, in retarding the progress of renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ratsHorm Metab Res. (2006)
  138. a b Ai P, et al. Aqueous extract of Astragali Radix induces human natriuresis through enhancement of renal response to atrial natriuretic peptideJ Ethnopharmacol. (2008)
  139. a b Cho WC, Leung KN. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceusCancer Lett. (2007)
  140. a b c Lee SJ, et al. Oral administration of Astragalus membranaceus inhibits the development of DNFB-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga miceBiol Pharm Bull. (2007)
  141. a b Yang B, et al. Protective effect of astragaloside IV against matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in ultraviolet-irradiated human dermal fibroblastsArch Pharm Res. (2011)
  142. ^ Kim JH, et al. Inhibitory effects of calycosin isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus on melanin biosynthesisBiol Pharm Bull. (2009)
  143. a b c d e Chen X, et al. The healing and anti-scar effects of astragaloside IV on the wound repair in vitro and in vivoJ Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  144. a b Peng LH, et al. Topical Astragaloside IV-Releasing Hydrogel Improves Healing of Skin Wounds <i>in Vivo</i>Biol Pharm Bull. (2012)
  145. ^ Shah M, et al. Role of elevated plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 levels in wound healingAm J Pathol. (1999)
  146. ^ Miller MC, Nanchahal J. Advances in the modulation of cutaneous wound healing and scarringBioDrugs. (2005)
  147. ^ Huh JE, et al. Formononetin accelerates wound repair by the regulation of early growth response factor-1 transcription factor through the phosphorylation of the ERK and p38 MAPK pathwaysInt Immunopharmacol. (2011)
  148. a b Matkovic Z, et al. Efficacy and safety of Astragalus membranaceus in the treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitisPhytother Res. (2010)
  149. ^ Cho JH, et al. Myelophil, an extract mix of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, ameliorates chronic fatigue: a randomised, double-blind, controlled pilot studyComplement Ther Med. (2009)
  150. ^ Song ZH, et al. Chemical and biological assessment of a traditional chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: orthogonal array design to optimize the extraction of chemical constituentsPlanta Med. (2004)
  151. a b c d e Dong TT, et al. Chemical and biological assessment of a chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: Determination of drug ratio in having optimized propertiesJ Agric Food Chem. (2006)
  152. ^ Ferulic acid: pharmaceutical functions, preparation and applications in foods.
  153. ^ Zhao KJ, et al. Molecular genetic and chemical assessment of radix Angelica (Danggui) in ChinaJ Agric Food Chem. (2003)
  154. a b Chang MS, et al. Treatment with Astragali radix and Angelicae radix enhances erythropoietin gene expression in the cyclophosphamide-induced anemic ratJ Med Food. (2009)
  155. ^ Gao QT, et al. A Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis induces the expression of erythropoietin in cultured Hep3B cellsPlanta Med. (2008)
  156. ^ Yang M, et al. An herbal decoction of Radix astragali and Radix angelicae sinensis promotes hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesisJ Ethnopharmacol. (2009)
  157. ^ Lei Y, Gao Q, Li YS. Study on effects of Astragalus, Angelica and their combination on vascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitroZhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. (2003)
  158. a b c Tse HY, et al. Angiogenic efficacy of simplified 2-herb formula (NF3) in zebrafish embryos in vivo and rat aortic ring in vitroJ Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  159. ^ Tam JC, et al. The in vivo and in vitro diabetic wound healing effects of a 2-herb formula and its mechanisms of actionJ Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  160. ^ Lau KM, et al. Synergistic interaction between Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix in a Chinese herbal formula to promote diabetic wound healingJ Ethnopharmacol. (2012)
  161. ^ Zhang Q, et al. Transcriptional profiling of human skin fibroblast cell line Hs27 induced by herbal formula Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae RadixJ Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  162. ^ Chan CM, et al. Influence of an anti-diabetic foot ulcer formula and its component herbs on tissue and systemic glucose homeostasisJ Ethnopharmacol. (2007)
  163. a b Or PM, et al. Effects of Radix Astragali and Radix Rehmanniae, the components of an anti-diabetic foot ulcer herbal formula, on metabolism of model CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 probe substrates in pooled human liver microsomes and specific CYP isoformsPhytomedicine. (2012)
  164. ^ Huang X, et al. Influence of astragalosides and Panax notoginseng saponins compatibility on MMP-9 and TIMP-1 after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in miceZhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. (2010)
  165. ^ Tan H, Huang XP, Deng CQ. Effects of astragaloside and Panax notoginseng saponins combination on oxidative stress of cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury in miceZhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. (2010)
  166. a b Xuejiang W, Ichikawa H, Konishi T. Antioxidant potential of qizhu tang, a chinese herbal medicine, and the effect on cerebral oxidative damage after ischemia reperfusion in ratsBiol Pharm Bull. (2001)
  167. a b Gao XH, et al. Qi-Shao-Shuang-Gan, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus saponins with Paeonia lactiflora glycosides, ameliorates polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in miceInflammation. (2011)
  168. a b c d e Yan F, et al. Synergistic hepatoprotective effect of Schisandrae lignans with Astragalus polysaccharides on chronic liver injury in ratsPhytomedicine. (2009)
  169. ^ Liang XC, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore for treatment of neovascularization of retinal capillary (retinopathy) in diabetes–in vitro studyPhytomedicine. (2002)
  170. ^ Tsutsumi T, et al. Effects of oral administration of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore on neovascularization of retinal and choroidal capillaries of diabetes in ratsPhytother Res. (2008)
  171. a b Tsutsumi T, et al. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of fangchinoline isolated from Stephania tetrandra Radix in streptozotocin-diabetic miceBiol Pharm Bull. (2003)
  172. a b Ma W, et al. Combined effects of fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra Radix and formononetin and calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Radix on hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in streptozotocin-diabetic miceBiol Pharm Bull. (2007)
  173. ^ Booth A, et al. Oral dose-ranging developmental toxicity study of an herbal supplement (NT) and gallic acid in ratsAdv Ther. (2010)
  174. ^ Herbal composition and method for controlling body weight and composition.
  175. ^ Effect of an herbal extract Number Ten (NT) on body weight in rats.
  176. ^ Roberts AT, et al. The safety and efficacy of a dietary herbal supplement and gallic acid for weight lossJ Med Food. (2007)
  177. Haines CJ, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of a Chinese herbal medicine preparation (Dang Gui Buxue Tang) on menopausal symptoms in Hong Kong Chinese womenClimacteric. (2008)
  178. Chen CC, et al. Chinese Herb Astragalus membranaceus Enhances Recovery of Hemorrhagic Stroke: Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized StudyEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2012)
  179. Zwickey H, et al. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: a pilot studyPhytother Res. (2007)
  180. Chen HW, et al. A novel infusible botanically-derived drug, PG2, for cancer-related fatigue: a phase II double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled studyClin Invest Med. (2012)