The habit changes throughout the last decades, such as a sedentary lifestyle and excessive consumption of caloric and high-fat foods, have brought attention to the emerging cases of dyslipidemia. This disorder is a cause for concern, as it brings several health risks. Understand below what is dyslipidemia.
Dyslipidemia is characterized by an abnormal elevation of lipids, that is, it means an increase in fats in the blood, such as cholesterol and triglycerides. However, when levels are high, there is the possibility of formation and accumulation of plaque in the arteries, increasing the risk of partial or total obstruction of the blood flow that goes to the heart and brain.
This means that dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the development of atherosclerosis, which can lead to clogged arteries due to the accumulation of fatty plaques. In fact, this is considered the most frequent and worrying complication, since it can lead to myocardial infarction and even strokes.
It is also important to remember that the risk of complications increases according to the presence of other conditions, the so-called risk factors, which are:
- family history
- high sugar, carbohydrates and fat diets
- renal insufficiency
Therefore, anyone who has dyslipidemia and fits any of these groups, should take a closer look at it and seek medical advice, in order to reduce the risk of developing more serious diseases, such as those previously mentioned.
What causes dyslipidemia and what are the symptoms
Specialists affirm that are some different classifications for dyslipidemia, therefore, dyslipidemias can manifest due to the following factors:
Isolated hypercholesterolemia: when the levels of LDL cholesterol, known as bad cholesterol, are above 160mg / dL;
Isolated hypertriglyceridemia: when triglyceride levels are above 160mg / dL;
Hypoalphalipoproteinemia: characterized by a low level of HDL cholesterol, the good cholesterol. In this case, men are below 40mg / dL and women below 50mg / dL;
Mixed hyperlipidemia: when there is an increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels at the same time.
In addition to these classifications, there are also two types of dyslipidemia:
Primary dyslipidemia, which arises due to genetic factors. In this type, there is a change in the metabolism of blood lipids, resulting in elevated cholesterol and / or triglycerides.
Secondary dyslipidemia, which in turn is related to the presence of other diseases, such as diabetes and hypothyroidism, as they alter lipid metabolism. In addition, lifestyle can also cause this type of dyslipidemia, such as obesity, physical inactivity and excessive consumption of fatty foods.
Knowing that, people who are part of the risk factor groups should be aware, as dyslipidemia does not normally show symptoms, except for serious situations or those associated with other diseases. In this case, abdominal pain may arise due to the high level of triglycerides, skin lesions, called xanthelasmas or xanthomas, in addition to other cardiovascular diseases.
In general, the safest way to identify dyslipidemia is through a blood test. Which in each fraction of the lipids has its own reference value, thus, the result indicates whether the values are above, below or within the expected.
Dyslipidemia prevention and treatment
At first, it is worth mentioning that genetic factors cannot be controlled. However, it is essential to maintain healthy habits in order to prevent high levels of bad cholesterol and triglycerides. Consequently, this practice also reduces the risk of dyslipidemia to manifest itself. It is also necessary to keep the exams up to date and always seek medical attention.
For those who do not have a family history, preventive measures are also related to healthy habits, which are:
- practice physical activity;
- avoid overweight or obesity;
- consume vegetables, fruits, vegetables and foods with fiber;
- try not to eat fried foods and sugary foods;
- avoid smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages.
For those with dyslipidemia, treatment must be carried out with medical supervision, and involves both changes in lifestyle and the use of medication, depending on the case.
In addition, if the cause is linked only to eating habits and physical inactivity, there is the possibility of reversing the condition. However, medical monitoring and routine laboratory tests are essential.